Security Analysis of XOR Based Ciphered Image
Keywords:Cryptography, Matrix Algorithms
In the present paper, we report security analysis of an effective method of scrambling i.e. XOR technique, which may be used as an important component in visual cryptography. Histogram of scrambled or encrypted images expressed that pixel values are distributed quite uniformly. This implies that nothing can be guessed about the original image using the encrypted image. For analyzing the complexity of encrypted images, information entropy, the correlation coefficient of adjacent pixels values were also calculated. Values of horizontal correlation, vertical correlation, and information entropy reflected that the complexity and randomness of pixel values are quite high for XOR cipher. Now a day’s differential attack has been very common. Keeping the same in the mind, we have calculated Unified Average Changing Intensity (UACI) and the Number of Pixels Change Rate (NPCR), to exhibit the ability of encrypted image using XOR cipher to resist the differential attack. So we can say that XOR cipher is useful for secure transmission of an image.
P. Sharma, D. Mishra, V.K. Sarthi, P. Bhatpahri and R. Shrivastava, “Visual Encryption Using Bit Shift Technique”, International Journal of Scientific Research in Computer Science and Engineering, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 57-61, June 2017.
XY Wang, YQ Zhang and LT Liu, “An enhanced sub-image encryption method”, Optics and Laser in Engineering, Vol. 86, pp. 248-254, November 2016
CC Lee, HH Chen, HT Liu, GW Chen and CS Tsai, “A new visual cryptography with multi-level encoding”, Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, Vol. 2,No. 3, pp. 243-250, June 2016.
HB Kekre, T Sarode and P. Halarnkar, “Image Scrambling using R-Prime Shuffle”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 8, pp. 4070 – 4076, August 2013.
Z. Hua and Y. Zhou, “Design of image cipher using block-based scrambling and image filtering”, Information Sciences, Vol. 396, pp. 97-113, August 2017.
T Guo, F Liu and C. Wu, “k out of k extended visual cryptography scheme by random grids”, Signal Processing, Vol. 94, pp. 90-101, January 2014.
A. Soleymani, M. J. Nordin and E. Sundarajan, “A Chaotic Cryptosystem for Images Based on Henon and Arnold Cat Map”, The Scientific World Journal, 2014. DOI:- http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/536930.
X.Y. Wang, F. Chen and T. Wang, “A new compound mode of confusion and diffusion for block encryption of image based on chaos”, Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, Vol. 15,No. 9, pp. 2479-2485, September 2010.
L. Sui and B. Gao, “Single-channel color image encryption based on iterative fractional Fourier transform and chaos”, Optics & Laser Technology, Vol. 48, pp. 117-127, June 2013.
H. Li, Y. Wang, H. Yan, L. Li, Q. Li and X. Zhao, “Double-image encryption by using chaos-based local pixel scrambling technique and gyrator transform”, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, Vol. 51, No. 12, pp. 1327-1331, 2013.
A. Kanso, M. Ghebleh, “A novel image encryption algorithm based on a 3D chaotic map”, Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, Vol. 17, No. 7, pp. 2943-2959, July 2012.
C.Y. Song, Y.L. Qiao and X.Z. Zhang, “An image encryption scheme based on new spatiotemporal chaos”, Optik, Vol. 124, No.18, pp. 3329-3334, September 2012.
N. Singh and A. Sinha, “Optical image encryption using improper Hartley transforms and chaos”, Optik, Vol. 121, No. 10, pp. 918-925, June 2010.
A. Akhshani, S. Behnia, A. Akhavan, H.A. Hassan and Z. Hassan, “A novel scheme for image encryption based on 2D piecewise chaotic maps”, Optics Communications, Vol. 283, No. 17, 3259-3266, September 2010.
X. Y. Wang, Y.Q Zhang, and L.T. Liu, “An enhanced sub-image encryption method”, Optics and Laser in Engineering, Vol. 86, pp. 248-254, November 2016.
B. Stoyanov, and K. Kordov, “Image Encryption Using Chebyshev Map and Rotation Equation”, Entropy, Vol. 17, pp. 2117-2139, April 2015.
X. Tong, Y. Liu, M. Zhang, H. Xu and Z. Wang, “An Image Encryption Scheme Based on Hyperchaotic Rabinovich and Exponential Chaos Maps”, Entropy, Vol. 17, pp. 181-196, January 2015.
Yue Wu, Student Member, IEEE, Joseph P. Noonan, Cyber Journals: Multidisciplinary Journals in Science and Technology, Journal of Selected Areas in Telecommunications (JSAT), April Edition, 2011
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_cryptanalysis, accessed on 16 June 2017.