Visual Encryption Using Multilevel Scrambling Followed by Affine Encryption Technique

Authors

  • Piyali Sharma Department of Computer Science, ICFAI University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
  • Pramay Bhatpahri Department of Mechanical Engineering, ICFAI University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
  • Ravi Kiran Patnaik Department of Computer Science, ICFAI University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
  • Ravi Shrivastava Department of Physics, ICFAI University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India

Keywords:

Cryptography, Matrix algorithms, Scrambling, Horizontal Correlation, Vertical Correlation

Abstract

In the present paper, we report an effective method of multilevel scrambling followed by affine encryption, which may be used as one of the useful tools in visual cryptography. A sample image is scrambled for six times using a specific algorithm. Toner distributions of scrambled images were studied using their histograms. The results of histogram expressed that the effectiveness of scrambling increased with its increasing stages and it becomes almost ideal when the image after affine encryption is taken. In order to judge the complexity level of scrambling, horizontal & vertical correlation of adjacent pixels and Information Entropy of different scrambled images were also calculated. Values of horizontal & vertical correlation and information entropy reflected that the complexity and randomness of pixels increase with increasing stages of scrambling. It also indicated that the randomness doesn’t change much after the fifth stage of scrambling and affine encryption enhanced the level of security by a large extent.

References

H. Zhua, C. Zhao, X. Zhanga, and L. Yang, “An image encryption scheme using generalized Arnold map and affine cipher”, Optik, Vol. 125 No. 22, pp. 6672-6677, November 2014.

R. Z. Wang, Y. C. Lana, Y. K. Lee, S. Y. Huang, S. J. Shyu, and T. L. Chia, “Incrementing visual cryptography using random grids, Optics Communications”, Vol. 283, No. 21, pp. 4242-4249, November 2010.

R. Lukac, K.N. Plataniotis, “Bit-level based secret sharing for image encryption”, Pattern Recognition, Vol. 38, pp. 767-772, May 2005.

M. Naor and B. Pinkas, “Visual authentication and identification, advances in cryptography”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, New York, Vol. 1294, pp. 322–336, August 1997.

D.C. Lou, H.K. Tso, and J.L. Liu, “A copyright protection scheme for digital images using visual cryptography technique”, Computer Standards and Interfaces, Vol. 29, pp. 125-131, January 2007.

X. Y. Wang, Y.Q Zhang, and L.T. Liu, “An enhanced sub-image encryption method”, Optics and Laser in Engineering, Vol. 86, pp. 248-254, November 2016.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image_histogram, (18 April 2017)

C. Li and K. T. Lo, “Optimal quantitative cryptanalysis of permutation-only multimedia ciphers against plaintext attacks”, Signal Process, Vol. 91, No. 4, pp. 949-954, June 2011.

X. Liao, S. Lai, Q. Zhou, “A novel image encryption algorithm based on self-adaptive wave transmission”, Signal Process, Vol. 90, No. 9, pp. 2714-2722, September 2010.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image_histogram, accessed on 17 June 2017.

X. Tong, Y. Liu , M. Zhang , H. Xu and Z. Wang, “An Image Encryption Scheme Based on Hyperchaotic Rabinovich and Exponential Chaos Maps”, Entropy, Vol. 17 No. 1, pp. 181-196, January 2015.

B. Stoyanov, and K. Kordov,” Image Encryption Using Chebyshev Map and Rotation Equation”, Entropy, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 2117-2139, 2015.

Yue Wu, Student Member, IEEE, Joseph P. Noonan, Cyber Journals: Multidisciplinary Journals in Science and Technology, Journal of Selected Areas in Telecommunications (JSAT), April Edition, 2011

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affine_cipher, accessed on 16 June 2017

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_cryptanalysis, accessed on 16 June 2017

Published

05-05-2018