Extent of Shift Work Impact on Library Staff Efficiency and Health
Keywords:Academic Libraries, Librarians, Health Care, Shift Work, Health Impact, Nigeria
Shift workers in libraries just like their counterparts in service organizations are impacted upon negatively with respect to health and efficiency. This calls for investigation on the extent of impact on librarians’ efficiency and health. The study empirically investigated the extent of shift work impact on library staff efficiency and health in academic libraries in Delta State, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey and the population includes 182 staff in the academic libraries. Questionnaire was used for data gathering. The questionnaire was validated and reliability established with Crombach-Alpa reliability Co-efficient, 0.86. Data retrieved were analyzed using frequency count and simple percentage. The study found that, to a great extent, shift work disrupts shift workers’ family life and has negative effects on efficiency and health. Also, the study found that service level is higher during morning shift, but the shift workers prefer afternoon shift. A shift worker whose pulse corresponds to diurnal activity by a light/dark cycle should go through phase modification when adjusting to a new light/dark cycle, especially the night/ afternoon shift workers). Adequate lighting could be used to reduce/mitigate circadian rhythms’ disruption in shift workers.
Bartel, K. A., Gradisar, M., & Williamson, P. (2015). Protective and risk factors for adolescent sleep: a meta-analytic review. Sleep Med Rev., 2, 72-85.
BBC News (July, 2012). Shiftwork: Link to increase risk of heart problems. Retrieved from www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-18996082.
Capshaw, D., & Oliver, B. (2018). What is the Worst Shift to Work? Night Shift? Afternoon Shift? Retrieved from https://shift-work.com/news/news/what-is-the-worst-shift-to-work-night-shift-afternoon-shift.
Chang, A. M., Scheer, F. A., & Czeisler, C. A. (2011). The human circadian system adapts to prior photic history. Journal of Physiology, 589, 1095-1102.
Chung, T. H., Lee, J., & Kim, M. C. (2016). Impact of night-shift work on the prevalence of erosive esophagitis in shipyard male workers. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC4927591.
Cuesta , M., Boudreau, P., Cermakian, N., & Boivin, D. B. (2017a). Skin Temperature Rhythms in Humans Respond to Changes in the Timing of Sleep and Light. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28569119.
Cuesta, M., Boudreau, P., Cermakian, N., & Boivin, D. B. (2017b). Rapid resetting of human peripheral clocks by phototherapy during simulated night shift work. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-16429-8.
Dawn, M. (2018). What are the three work shifts. Retrieved from https://careertrend.com/three-work-shifts31594.html.
Dhande, K. K., & Sharma, S. (2011). Influence of shift work in process industry on workers’ occupational health, productivity and social life: An ergonomic approach. Journal of Human Factors in Ergonomic and Manufacturing Archive, 22(3), 260-268.
Figueiro, M. G., & White, R. D. (2013). Health consequences of shift work and implications for structural design. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/jp20137#citeas.
Ganesan, S., Magee, M., Stone, J. E., Mulhall, M. D., Collins, A., Howard, M. E. Lockley, S. W., Rajaratnam, S. M. W. & Sletten, T. L. (2019). The impact of shift work on sleep, alertness and performance in healthcare workers. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-40914-x.
Half, R. (2019). Making Work-life balance a part of employee retention. Retrieved from https://www.roberthalf.com/blog/ management-tips/making-work-life-balance-a-part-of-employee-retention.
Handy, J. (2010). Maintaining family life under shiftwork schedules: A case study of a New Zealand Petrochemical Plant. Retrieved from https://mro.massey.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10179/5999/NZJP-Vol391 -2010-3-Handy.pdf.
Heathfield, S. M. (2018). Shift work and the employees who work shifts. Retrieved from https://www.thebalancecareers.com/shift-work-1918258.
Heatfield, Susan M. (2010). Shift work. Retrieved from About.com.
Isherwood, C. M., Chinoy, E. D., Murphy, A. S., Kim, J. H., Wang, W., & Duffy, J. F. (2020). Scheduled afternoon - evening sleep leads to better night shift performance in older adults. Retrieved from https://oem.bmj.com/content/77/3/179?int_source= trendmd&int_medium=cpc&int_campaign=usage-042019.
Jacobs, M. (2019). Physiological differences in stress reactivity between morning and evening chronotypes. Retrieved from https://scholar.umw.edu/student_research/281.
Kervezee, L., Cermakian, N., & Boivin, D. B. (2019). Individual metabolomic signatures of circadian misalignment during simulated night shifts in humans. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000303.
Knutsson, A. (2010).Gastrointestinal disorders among shift works. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment Health, 36, 85-95. DOI: 10.5271/sjweh.2897.
Leadership Team at Solutions Staffing. (2017). How to think about the shifting preferred shift start times. Retrieved from http://www.solutionsstaffing.com/insights/for-employers/shiftingshift starttimeshrk.
Mackay, R. D. (2019). All about shift work. Retrieved from https://www.thebalancecareers.com/all-about-shift-work-4689266.
McIntosh, J. (2016). The impact of shift work on health. Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/288310.
Morris, C. J., Purvis, T. E., Hu, K., & Scheer, F. A. (2016). Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 113(10), E1402–E1411.
National Sleep Foundation. (2020). How shift work affects the circadian system. Retrieved from https://www.sleepfoundation.org/ shift-work-disorder/what-shift-work/how-shift-work-affects-circadian -system.
National Sleep Foundation. (2019). Shift work disorder. Retrieved from https://www.sleepfoundation.org/shift-work-disorder/ what-shift-work.
Nigerian Vanguard. (2019). What shift work does to human health. Retrieved from https://www.vanguardngr.com/2019/04/what-shift-work-does-to-human-health.
Oliver, B., & Capshaw, D. (2019). Employee shift work schedules: An introduction. Retrieved from https://www.shift-work.com/about/ employee-shift-work-schedules-an-introduction.
Scheer, F. A, Shea, S. A. (2014). Human circadian system causes a morning peak in prothrombotic plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) independent of the sleep/wake cycle. Blood, 123(4), 590-593.
Smith, M. R., Eastman, C. I. (2012). Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment. Nat Sci Sleep, 204, 111–132.
The FreeDictionary (2012). Work life balance. Retrieved from thefreedictionary.com/work%2flife.
Thosar, S. S., Butler, M. P. & Shea, S. A. (2019). Role of the circadian system in cardiovascular disease. DOI: 10.1172/JCI80590.
Treadwell, L. (2018). Types of work shift schedules. Retrieved from https://careertrend.com/list-5790170-types-work-shift-schedules.html.
Treuer, K. V., Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, M., & Little, G. (2014). The impact of shift work and organizational work climate on health outcomes in nurses. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/264987301.
Vakil, N., Van Zanten, S. V., Kahrilas, P., Dent, J., Jones, R., & Global Consensus Group. (2006). The Montreal definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease: A global evidence-based consensus. Retrieved from https://reference.medscape.com/ medline/abstract/16928254.
Wallace, P. J., & Haber, J. J. (2019). Top 10 evidence-based countermeasures for night shift workers. Retrieved from http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1737-0994.
White, D. M. (2018). Shift Work and Relationships. Retrieved from https://psychcentral.com/lib/shift-work-and-relationships.