Customers’ Opinion about Management of Empty Containers in Liner Shipping


  • R. Sritharan Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration, Directorate of Distance Education, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India



Liner Shipping, Container Management


A container is any portable device in which material can be stored, handled, treated, transported, recycled, or disposed of. The definition of container is found in California Code of Regulations, Title 22, and section 66260.10. Containers range in size from small lab bottles to trucks and rail cars, but the most common containers used for hazardous waste and hazardous materials management are 55 gallon steel or plastic drums and inner liners from these drums (Cheung and Chen, 1998). The empty container management requirements discussed in this fact sheet pertain to containers and their liners that are less than 110 gallons in volume. The main aim of the study is to identify the various factors in managing empty containers in Liner shipping. The data were collected and analyzed through proper statistical tools and the results were presented in the article.


Cheung, R.K. & Chen, C.Y. (1998). A two-stage stochastic network model and solution methods for the dynamic empty container allocation problem. Transport Science, 32(2), 142–162.

Choong, S.T., Cole, M. & Kutanoglu, E. (2002). Empty container management for intermodal transportation networks. Transport Research, 38(6), 423–438.

Crainic, T.G., Gendreau, M. & Dejax, P. (1993). Dynamic and stochastic models for the allocation of empty containers. Operations Research 41(1), 102–126.

Drewry. (2002). Container leasing: seeking out the opportunities. Drewry Shipping Consultants, London.

Hanh, D. (2003). The logistics of empty cargo containers in the southern California region. METRANS Transportation Center, Los Angeles.

Heaver, T.D. (2001). The evolving roles of shipping lines in international logistics. International Journal of Maritime Economy, 4(3), 210–230.

Jula, H., Chassiakos, A., & Ioannou, P. (2006). Port dynamic empty container reuse. Transport Research, 42(1), 43–60.

Konings, R. (2005). Foldable containers to reduce the costs of empty transport: a cost-benefit analysis from a chain and multi-actor perspective. Maritime Economy Logistics 7(3), 223–249.

Krajewski, L., & Ritzman, L. (2005). Operations management: process and value chains. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.

Lopez, E. (2003). How do ocean carriers organize the empty containers reposition activity in the USA? Maritime Policy Management, 30(4), 339–355.

Mongelluzzo, B. (2005a). Boxes available for peak season. Journal of Commerce, 6(28), 38–39.

Murrhy, R.P., & Wood, F.D. (2004). Contemporary logistics. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.

Stopford, M. (2002). Is the drive for ever bigger containerships irresistible? Lloyd’s List Shipping Forecasting Conference, London.

UNCTAD (2008). Review of maritime transport. United Nations Conference of Trade and Development, Geneva. [15] Panayides, P. & Cullinane, K. (2002). Competitive advantage in liner shipping. International Journal of Maritime Economy. 4(3), 189–209.

Zhao, H.X. (2002). Rapid internet development in China: a discussion of opportunities and constraints on future growth. Thunderbird International Business Review, 44(1), 119–138.




How to Cite

Sritharan, R. (2016). Customers’ Opinion about Management of Empty Containers in Liner Shipping. Asian Journal of Managerial Science, 5(2), 37–40.