Determination of Glacier Mass Balance using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology: A Case Study of Bara Shigri Glacier, Himachal Pradesh
Keywords:NDSI, NDSI -2, NDGI, Band Ratio, WGMS data, Glacier Mass Balance
Glaciers plays a major role in the generation of stream flows in Himalayan region. The Historical studies say that many glaciers in the Himalayan region are retreating due to climate change and global warming. It is important to study of glacier as they are the main source of fresh water. Due to change of climate over different time periods there is a continuous decrease of glacier areas. So it is now a days become very big issue for our future as well as present generation for fluctuation of fresh drinking water storage. The present study focuses to examine the changes in snow-covered area and glacier mass balance of the Bara Shigri glacier of Himalayan region using Remote Sensing and GIS technology. Remote sensing technique can be used without any restrictions of manual approach. The study aim is to show the changes of snow cover area and mass balance of glacier during last 27 years from 1989 to 2016. Snow cover area has been monitored using imageries of Landsat-2 and Landsat-5 multispectral band (1989, 2002, 2008, and 2016) TM and ETM data using NDSI (Normalized Difference Snow Index), NDSI-2(Normalized Difference Snow Index-2), NDGI (Normalized Difference Glacier Index), and Band ratio techniques. WGMS (World Glacier Monitoring Services) data are used for accuracy assessment for the Mass balance, front variation and annual thickness in the glacier for analyzing the surface – atmosphere interaction which contributes to melting of the glacier.
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