Pharmaceutical Care Practices among Hospital Pharmacists in a State in Nigeria
Keywords:Hospital Pharmacists, Pharmaceutical Care, Practice
Pharmaceutical care is a patient centered, outcome-oriented practice, requiring collaboration between the pharmacist, other care givers and the patient. In Nigeria, pharmacy practice is still majorly product based. Implementation of pharmaceutical care in hospitals in Nigeria since its introduction several years ago has remained erratic. This study evaluated practice of pharmaceutical care among hospital pharmacists in Delta State. This was a prospective study using a structured, pretested and self-administered questionnaire to 55 hospital and administrative pharmacists that gathered in Asaba in July 2018 for the quarterly meeting of their Association. The four-part Questionnaire evaluated demographics of respondents, pharmaceutical care practices carried out, reasons for not implementing pharmaceutical care and suggestions on how pharmaceutical care can be implemented in their various hospitals. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS Version 22. Descriptive and chi square statistics were obtained. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. 55 questionnaires were distributed, 50 were returned, giving a response rate of 90.9%. Majority (40.0%) were aged 20-29 years; there were more males (52.0%) than females. Majority (56.0%) were married, about one quarter (24.0%) were in practice for 1-5 years. More than half (58.0%) were sole holders of Bachelor of Pharmacy degree. Majority (66.0%) were practicing at the Federal Medical Centre, Asaba. Pharmaceutical care practices carried out included monitoring patient response to therapy (58.0%), identification of errors in patient prescriptions (88.0%), interventions to correct detected errors (86.0%), documentation of pharmaceutical care activities (72.0%), medication review with physicians (54.0%), participation in pharmacists ward rounds (16.0%). However, only 4.0% of respondents counselled patients during interventions to rectify drug therapy problems. Among factors responsible for non-implementation of pharmaceutical care were lack of collaboration (20.0%) lack of space (6.0%), non-acceptance by physicians and nurses and lack of personnel were 10.0% each. Association between location of practice and monitoring improvement in patient response was statistically significant (c2 =23.112, P = 0.003). Practice of pharmaceutical care among pharmacists that converged for the quarterly meeting was average. There is need for pharmacists to improve in the area of monitoring patient’s response to pharmacotherapy as well as sharpen their counselling skills so that they can render effective drug information services to patients and other healthcare providers.
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