Rejuvenation of Pesticide Polluted Soil from the Isolated Microbial Flora of Agricultural Field


  • J. Sivakumar Assistant Professor, PG Department of Zoology, Guru Nanak College (Autonomous), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India



Aspergillus fumigatus, Bacillus sp, Carbaryl, Monocrotophos, Malathion, Pseudomonas and Humicola sp.


The widespread use of pesticides leads to imbalances in the qualities of soil, water, and air environments. Pesticides can only be broken down more quickly by combining microbial consortia of native and naturally occurring bacteria isolated from certain polluted environments. To rejuvenate the pesticide polluted soil, the samples was collected and microbial flora were isolated from the soil samples. These floras were introduced into the three pesticides like Carbaryl, Monocrotophos and Malathion (CMM) for the biodegradation activity. Standard microbiological protocols were followed to isolate the microbial flora from the collected soil samples. The isolated microbial strains were confirmed with the isolation of genomic DNA. The biodegradation of pesticides such as Carbaryl, Monocrotophos and Malathion (CMM) were performed with the isolated strains. The bacterial strains such as Pseudomonas sp, Bacillus sp and Micrococcus sp; actinomycetes – Azatobacter; fungal species such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Gliocladium sp and Humicola sp were isolated from the agricultural field. Among these Bacillus sp showed highest biodegradation activity against the three pesticides. These investigations screened the best microorganism for several pesticides, including carbaryl, Monocrotophos, and Malathion (CMM), the best degradation methods, and the best degradation environment, providing a more practical reference for subsequent study.


J. P. Verma, D. K. Jaiswal and R. Sagar, “Pesticide Relevance and Their Microbial Degradation,” A-State-of-Art. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 13, pp. 429-466, 2014.

G. Satish, M. Ashokrao and K. Arun, “Microbial degradation of pesticide: A review,” African Journal of Microbiology Research., Vol. 11, No. 24, pp. 992-1012, 2017.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. [Online]. Available: (accessed on 19 August 2018).

D. Pimentel, S.McNair, J. Janecka, J. Wightman, C. Simmonds, C. O’connell, E. Wong, L. Russel, J. Zern and T. Aquino, “Economic and Environmental Threats of Alien Plant, Animal, and Microbe Invasions,” Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., Vol. 84, pp. 1-20, 2001.

G. H.Walter, S. Chandrasekaran, P. J. Collins, R. Jagadeesan, S. Mohankumar, K. Alagusundaram, P. R. Ebert, G. J. Daglish, M. K. Nayak and S. Mohan, “The Grand Challenge of Food Security: General Lessons from A Comprehensive Approach to Protecting Stored Grain from Insect Pests in Australia and India,” Indian J. Entomol., Vol. 78, pp. 7-16, 2016.

B. K. Singh and A. Walker, “Microbial degradation of organophosphorus compounds,” FEMS Microbiol Rev., Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 428-471, 2006.

S. Chen, D. Sun and J. S. Chung, “Treatment of Pesticide Wastewater by Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor Combined with Fenton-Coagulation Pretreatment,” J. Hazard. Mater., Vol. 144, pp. 577-584, 2007.

K. Fenner, S. Canonica, L. P. Wackett and M. Elsner, “Evaluating Pesticide Degradation in the Environment: Blind Spots and Emerging Opportunities,” Science., Vol. 341, pp. 752-758, 2013.

E. J. Mrema, F. M. Rubino and C. Colosio, “Obsolete Pesticides - A Threat to Environment, Biodiversity and Human Health. Environ. Secur. Assess. Manag. Obsolete. Pestic,” Southeast Eur., Vol. 134, pp. 1-21, 2013.

K. P. Shukla, N. K. Singh and S. Sharma, “Bioremediation: developments, current practices and perspectives,” Genet. Eng. Biotechnology., Vol. 3, pp. 1-20, 2010.

S. Akbar and S. Sultan, “Soil Bacteria Showing a Potential of Chlorpyrifos Degradation and Plant Growth Enhancement,” Braz. J. Microbiol., Vol. 47, pp. 563-570, 2016.

H. Jabeen, S. Iqbal, S. Anwar and R. E. Parales, “Optimization of Profenofos Degradation by A Novel Bacterial Consortium PBAC Using Response Surface Methodology,” Int. Biodeter. Biodegr., Vol. 100, pp. 89-97, 2015.

S. Ramya, T. Venkatesan, K. Srinivasa Murthy, S. Jalali and A. Verghese, “Detection of Carboxylesterase and Esterase Activity in Culturable Gut Bacterial Flora Isolated from Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linnaeus), From India And Its Possible Role in Indoxacarb Degradation”. Braz. J. Microbiol., Vol. 47, pp. 327-336, 2016.

X. Ye, F. Dong and X. Lei, “Microbial Resources and Ecology-Microbial Degradation of Pesticides,” Nat. Resour. Conserv., Res. Vol. 1, 2018.

D. K. Singh, “Biodegradation and Bioremediation of Pesticide in Soil: Concept, Method and Recent Developments”. Indian. J. Microbial., Vol. 48, pp. 35-40, 2008.

K. D. Racke, M. Skidmore, D. J. Hamilton, J. B. Unsworth, J. Miyamoto and S. Z. Cohen, “Pesticide Fate in Tropical Soils,” Pest. Manag. Sci., Vol. 55, pp. 219-220, 2015.

EPA. What is a Pesticide? (Accessed 16 July 2012).

W. Zhang, F. Jiang and O. J. Feng, “Global pesticide consumption and pollution: with China as a focus. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences,” Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 125-144, 2011.

S. Tayade, Z. P. Patel, D. S. Mutkule and A. M. Kakde, “Pesticide contamination in food: A review,” IOSR J. Agri. Vet. Sci., Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 7- 11, 2013.

R. Kavitha and D. Geetha, “Bioremediation and Biodegradation of Pesticide from Contaminated Soil and Water - A Noval Approach,” Int. J. Current Micro. App. Sciences., Vol. 3, No. 10, pp. 23 - 33, 2014.

A. Chevillard, H. A. Coussy, V. Guillard, N. Gontard and E. Gastaldi, “Investigating the biodegradation pattern of an ecofriendly pesticide delivery system based on wheat gluten and organically modified montmorillonites,” Polymer Degradation and Stability., Vol. 97, No. 10, pp. 2060-2068, 2012.

C. K. Myresiotis, Z. Vryzas and E. Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, “Biodegradation of soil-applied pesticides by selected strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their effects on bacterial growth. Biodegradation,” Vol. 23, pp. 297-310, 2012.

X. Qiu, Q. Zhong, M. Li, W. Bai and B. Li, “Biodegradation of p-nitrophenol by methyl parathion- degrading Ochrobactrum sp. B2,” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation., Vol. 59, pp. 297-301, 2007.

M. L. Ortiz-Hernández, E. Sánchez-Salinas, A. Olvera-Velona, J. L. Folch-Mallol, “Pesticides in the Environment: Impacts and its Biodegradation as a Strategy for Residues Treatment, Pesticides - Formulations, Effects, Fate, Margarita Stoytcheva,” (Ed.), In‐ Tech., 2011.

C. O. Jeon and E. L. Madsen, “In situ microbial metabolism of aromatic-hydrocarbon environmental pollutants,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology., 2012.

M. Megharaj, B. Ramakrishnan, K. Venkateswarlu, N. Sethunathan and R. Naidu, “Bioremediation approaches for organic pollutants: A critical perspective,” Environment International., Vol. 37, pp. 1362-1375, 2011.

P. Riya and T. Jagatpati, “Biodegradation and bioremediation of pesticides in Soil: Its Objectives, Classification of Pesticides, Factors and Recent Developments,” World Journal of Science and Technology., Vol. 2, No. 7, pp. 36-41, 2012.

B. Ramakrishnan, M. Megharaj, K. Venkateswarlu, N. Sethunathan and R. Naidu, “Mixtures of Environmental Pollutants: Effects on Microorganisms and Their Activities in Soils,” Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 2, No. 11, pp. 63-120, 2011.

H. Kaur, S. Kapoor and G. Kaur, “Application of Ligninolytic Potentials of a White-Rot Fungus Ganoderma lucidum for Degradation of Lindane,” Environ. Monit. Assess., Vol. 188, pp. 588-596, 2016.

W. Tang, “Research Progress of Microbial Degradation of Organophosphorus Pesticides,” Prog. Appl. Microbiol., Vol. 1, pp. 29-35, 2018.

E. H. Nour, T. R. Elsayed, D. Springael and K. Smalla, “Comparable Dynamics of Linuron Catabolic Genes and Incp-1 Plasmids in Biopurification Systems Bpss as A Response to Linuron Spiking,” Appl. Microbiol. Biot., Vol. 101, pp. 4815-4825, 2017.

S. K. Nayak, B. Dash and B. Baliyarsingh, “Microbial Remediation of Persistent Agro-chemicals by Soil Bacteria: An Overview,” Microb. Biotechnol., pp. 275-301, 2018.

R. Prabha, D. P. Singh and M. K. Verma, “Microbial Interactions and Perspectives for Bioremediation of Pesticides in the Soils. In Plant-Microbe Interactions in Agro-Ecological Perspectives,” Springer: Singapore, pp. 649-671, 2017.

S. Chaussonnerie, P. L. Saaidi, E. Ugarte, A. Barbance Fossey, A. Barbe, V. Gyapay, G. Brüls, T. Chevallier, M. Couturat, “Microbial Degradation of a Recalcitrant Pesticide: Chlordecone,” Front. Microbiol., Vol. 7, pp. 20-25, 2016.

B. Singh, J. Kaur and K. Singh, “Microbial Degradation of an Organophosphate Pesticide, Malathion,” Crit. Rev. Microbiol., Vol. 40, pp. 146-154, 2014.

A. Kumar, N. Trefault, A. O. Olaniran, “Microbial Degradation of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: Insight into the Enzymes and Catabolic Genes Involved their Regulation and Biotechnological Implications,” Crit. Rev. Microbiol., Vol. 42, pp. 194-208, 2016.

B. Singh and K. Singh, “Microbial Degradation of Herbicides,” Crit. Rev. Microbiol., Vol. 42, pp. 245-261, 2016.

G. Buvaneswari, R. Thenmozhi, A. Nagasathya, N. Thajuddin and P. Kumar, “GC-MS and molecular analyses of Monocrotophos Biodegradation by Selected Bacterial Isolates”. Afr. J. Microbiol Res., Vol. 12, pp. 52-61, 2018.

S. G. Parte, A. D. Mohekar and A. S. Kharat, “Microbial Degradation of Pesticide: A Review,” Afr. J. Microbiol Res., Vol. 11, pp. 992-1012, 2017.

L. Krishnasamy, C. Shanmuga Sundaram and J. Sivakumar, “Biodegradation of Pesticides from the Isolated Microbial Flora of Crop Field Contaminated Soil,” Research Journal of Life Sciences, Bioinformatics, Pharmaceutical, and Chemical Sciences., Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 150-163, 2019.

J. Sivakumar, S. Bhuvaneswari, S. Venu, J. Jemima Ezhilarasi, C. Shanmugasundaram and P. Sankarganesh, “Acute Toxicity of Monocrotophos on Histological Alterations in the Anomuran Crab, Emerita asiatica (H. Milne Edwards, 1837),” Asian Journal of Engineering and Applied Technology., Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 19-31, 2022.

J. Sivakumar, S. Bhuvaneswari, S. Venu, S. Sivakumar, C. Shanmugasundaram and P. Sankarganesh, “Acute Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos on Histological Alterations in the Anomuran Crab, Emerita asiatica (H. Milne Edwards, 1837),” Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology., Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 28-40, 2022.




How to Cite

Sivakumar, J. (2023). Rejuvenation of Pesticide Polluted Soil from the Isolated Microbial Flora of Agricultural Field. Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology, 12(1), 25–37.