Effects of Different Combinations of Cow Dung and Jeewamirtha Application on Growth and Yield of Vigna Unguiculata L.
Keywords:Chemical Fertilizer, Cow Dung, Growth, Jeewamirtha, Vigna unguiculata, Yield
Cowpea is one of the important vegetable crop in Sri Lanka as well as many other countries. Chemical fertilizer application of cowpea production leads to hazardous effect of agro ecological system. In this regard, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of different combinations of Cow dung and Jeewamirtha on growth and yield of Vigna unguiculata. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design with six treatments and ten replications. The treatments are T1 (100% Jeewamirtha), T2 (75% Jeewamirtha + 25% Cow dung ), T3 (50% Jeewamirtha + 50% Cow dung), T4 (25% Jeewamirtha + 75% Cow dung), T5 (100% Cow dung), T6 (control ). The Experimental results showed that, T2 treatment, the plants treated with 75% Jeewamirtha and 25% Cow dung significantly increased the Fresh and Dry weight of shoot (38.90 %, 47.2 %), Days for 50 % flowering (23..6%),Number of pods per plant (44.5 %), 100 seeds (34.0 %) and Total yield per hectare (50.% ) in comparison to plants treated with Control treatment (T6). Therefore, the 75% Jeewamirtha and 25% Cow dung fertilizer could be recommended for the cultivation of Vigna unguiculata in order to enhance the growth and yield which is environmentally friendly for sustainable Agriculture.
M. F. Ana, N. Nascimento, F. Manuela, M. Rafael, C. R. José, and R. Ana, “Breeding Elite Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]” Varieties for Improved Food Security and Income in Africa, 2019.
K. Anil, N. Ramawat, and D. Singh, “Effect of organic manures and bio-fertilizers on growth and yield parameters of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp,” Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Vol. 8, No.2, pp. 271-274, 2019.
A. Beaulah, “Growth and development of moringa (Moringa olerifera Lam.) under organic and inorganic system of culture,” Ph.D. Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, 2001.
B. Boraiah, N. Devakumar, S. Shubha and K. B. Palanna, “Effect of Panchagavya, Jeevamrutha and Cow Urine on Beneficial Microorganisms and Yield of Capsicum (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum),” Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. Vol. 6, No. 9, pp. 3226-3234, 2017.
O. Boukar, N. Belko, S. Chamarthi, A. Togola, J. Batieno, E. Owusu, M. Haruna, S. Diallo, M. L. Umar, O. Olufajo and C. Fatokun, “Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata): Genetics, genomics and breeding,” Plant Breeding, Vol. 138, No. 4, pp. 415-424, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://doi. org/10.1111/pbr.12589.
N. Devakumar, G. Lavanya and G. G. E. Rao, “Influence of Jeevamrutha and Panchagavya on beneficial soil microbial population and yield of organic fieldbean (Dolichos lablab L.),” Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 52, No. 4, pp. 790-795, 2018.
A. A. Esfahani, Y. Niknejad, H. Fallah and S. Dastan, “Effect of mineral and biological fertilizers on the quantitative and the qualitative parameters of rice cultivars,” Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 7377-7393, 2018.
M. L. Fazeel, S. Sutharsan and S. Srikrishnah, “Effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and Jeewamirta application on growth and yield of Abelmoschus Esculentus L.,” International Journal of Agricultural Research, pp. 310-319, November 2019.
W. S. L. V. Fernando and K. Brintha, “Effect of Foliar Application of Banana Pseudostem Sap on Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.),” International Letters of Natural Sciences, Vol. 79, pp 9-15, 2020.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy, 2004.
C. Fulhage, A. Millmier, J. Lorimor, C. Hurburgh, J. Hattey and H. Zhang, “Near- infrared sensing of manure nutrients,” Transactions of the ASAE, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 903, 2000.
S. M. Gabr, “Effect of some organic fertilizers on growth, yield and quality of some new snap bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.),” Alex. J. Agric. Res., Vol. 45, pp. 201-212, 2000.
N. Grotz and M. L. Guerinot, “Molecular aspects of Cu, Fe and Zn homeostasis in plants,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Cell Research, Vol. 1763, No. 7, pp. 595-608, 2006.
M. Gryndler, R. Sudova and J. Rydlova, “Cultivation of highbiomass crops on mine spoil banks: Can microbial inoculation compensate for high doses of organic matter,” Bioresour. Technology, Vol. 99, pp. 6391-6399, 2008.
S. R. Kashif, M. Yaseen, M. Arshad and M. Ayub, “Response of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) to soil given encapsulated calcium carbide,” Pak J. Bot, Vol. 40, pp. 175-181, 2008.
E. Kebede, “Grain legumes production in Ethiopia: A review of adoption, opportunities, constraints and emphases for future interventions,” Turkish Journal of Agriculture - Food Science and Technology, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 977-989, 2020.
S. D. Klausner and R. W. Guest, “Influence of NH3 conservation from diary manure on the yield of corn,” Agron. J., Vol. 73, pp. 720-723, 1981.
L. M. V. Martins, G. R. Xavier, F. W. Rangel, J. R. A. Ribeiro, M. C. P. Neves, L. B. Morgado and N. G. Rumjanek, “Contribution of biological fixation to cowpea: A strategy for improving seed yield in the semi-arid region of Brazil,” Biology and fertility of soils, Vol. 38, pp. 333-339, 2003.
N. Mfeka, A. Mulidzi and F. Lewu, “Growth and yield parameters of three cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) lines as affected by planting date and zinc application rate,” South African Journal of Science, 2019. [Online]. Available: 115.10.17159/sajs.2019/4474.
S. Palekar, 2005, “Procedures for zero budget natural farming movement”, Vol.8, pp.38.
S. Palekar, “Text book on Shoonyabandovaladanaisargik akrushi, published by Swamyanand”, Agri Prakashana, Bangalore, pp. 210-214, 2006.
V. Romheld and E. A. Kirkby, “Research on potassium in agriculture: needs and prospects,” Plant and soil, Vol. 335, No. 1, pp. 155-180, 2010.
G. Sandeep, V. Swaminathan, P. Paramaguru and D. Janaki, “Effect of foliar application of micronutrients on growth, yield, and quality of annual moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.),” Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 363-367, 2019.
U. R. Sangakkara, 1993, “Effect of EM on Nitrogen and Potassium levels in the Rhizosphere of Bush Bean,” Third International Conference on Kyusei Nature Farming. Sanat Barbara, California, USA, 5-7 October 1993.
S. T. H Shah, M. S. I. Zamir, M. Waseem, A. Ali, M. Tahir and W. B. Khalid, “Growth and yield response of maize (Zea mays L.) to organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen,” Pakistani Journal of Life Sciences; Vol. 7, pp. 108-111, 2009.
W. Shanika and P. Premanandarajah, “Direct and residual effect of organic manure, urea integration on okra grown in sandy regosol,” Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 5, pp. 5, 2015.
V. Sharma and A. Thomas, “Response of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) to nitrogen, zinc and farm yard manure,” Legume Res., Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 295-298, 2010.
S. Sornalatha, M. Tamilarasi and B. Esakkiammal, “Effect of liquid organic fertilizer of panchagavya on growth and development of Luffa acutangula,” Scire Science Multidisciplinary Journal, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 72-81, 2018. DOI:10.25129/2457-0575.ssmjra 2018.151.q.
M. N. Sreenivasa, N. Naik, S. N. Bhat and M. M. Nekar, “Effect of organic liquid manures on growth, yield and quality of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.),” Green farming, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 282-284, 2010.
A. Viyasan, S. Sutharsan and S. Srikrishnah, “How organic fertilizer influence growth and yield of Aloe barbadensis,” International journal of Botany Studies, 2020.