Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology <p>AJSAT is covering all aspects of Science and Applied Technology areas. Topics include, but are not limited to: Chemistry, Physics, Astronomy, Earth Science, Environmental Science, Biology, Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems Science, etc.</p> en-US (Dr.M.Ramya) (Ms. S. Sukanya) Wed, 22 Mar 2023 05:17:24 +0000 OJS 60 β-Carotene Analysis and Histological Investigation on Different Egg Stages of Anomuran Crab, Emerita Asiatica (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) <p>Histological investigation and β-carotene analysis of different egg stages of anomuran crab, <em>Emerita asiatica</em> was studied. This investigation characterized the morphological and histological features of the ovaries; eggs and also resulted in the identification of the following structures such as Previtellogenic Oocyte, Vitellogenic Oocytes, Atretic Oocyte, matured Oocyte and its associated structures which are quiet common structures that are found in almost every Sand Crab. This study can be further used in studying the reproductive biology of this Sand Crab (<em>Emerita asiatica</em>). It can also be used in determining the structural and morphological changes that can happen in gonads due to the action of various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi by artificial infections. The observation described in this study will serve as a reference for future research aimed at studies based on environmental factors, temperature, climatic conditions, and feeding that might have an effect on this species. The conversion of β-carotene into vitamin A (retinol), for clear eyesight and healthy eyes, a robust immune system, and healthy skin and mucous membranes, we require vitamin A. Large amounts of vitamin A can be hazardous, but our bodies only make as much of the vitamin from β-carotene as is required. The sand crab serves as a different source of β-carotene than vitamin A, even though <em>E. asiatica</em> is not widely used. Though <em>E. asiatica </em>is not a commercially viable crab, it plays a vital role in the environment to maintain a stable marine ecosystem. Several steps and preventive measures should be taken to conserve these members of the marine food chain to have a stable ecosystem and also to protect this species from extinction. Further, this study can potentially benefit as baseline information for the future research on the species.</p> M. Rajkumar, J. Sivakumar, S. Venu, S. Bhuvaneswari Copyright (c) 2023 Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology Wed, 22 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Different Combinations of Cow Dung and Jeewamirtha Application on Growth and Yield of Vigna Unguiculata L. <p>Cowpea is one of the important vegetable crop in Sri Lanka as well as many other countries. Chemical fertilizer application of cowpea production leads to hazardous effect of agro ecological system. In this regard, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of different combinations of Cow dung and Jeewamirtha on growth and yield of <em>Vigna unguiculata</em>. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design with six treatments and ten replications. The treatments are T1 (100% Jeewamirtha), T2 (75% Jeewamirtha + 25% Cow dung ), T3 (50% Jeewamirtha + 50% Cow dung), T4 (25% Jeewamirtha + 75% Cow dung), T5 (100% Cow dung), T6 (control ). The Experimental results showed that, T2 treatment, the plants treated with 75% Jeewamirtha and 25% Cow dung significantly increased the Fresh and Dry weight of shoot (38.90 %, 47.2 %), Days for 50 % flowering (23..6%),Number of pods per plant (44.5 %), 100 seeds (34.0 %) and Total yield per hectare (50.% ) in comparison to plants treated with Control treatment (T6). Therefore, the 75% Jeewamirtha and 25% Cow dung fertilizer could be recommended for the cultivation of <em>Vigna unguiculata</em> in order to enhance the growth and yield which is environmentally friendly for sustainable Agriculture.</p> M. F. Nowe, S. Sutharsan, S. Srikrishnah, L. M. Rifnas Copyright (c) 2023 Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology Wed, 22 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Simulator-Based and Hands-On Methods for Marine Engineering: A Descriptive and Comparative Analysis <p>This study assessed the simulator-based and hands-on methods of selected third-year marine engineering students at the University of Cebu Lapulapu and Mandaue. This study determined the respondents’ age, gender, and grade point average profile. Furthermore, it defined the subjects’ performance levels and the difference between simulator-based and hands-on methods in Propulsion Ancillary System and Gas Turbine (PASGT). This study used the descriptive-comparative method. The researchers used a convenient number as subjects of the total number of enrollees in the course. The investigation was carried out by the researchers in University of Cebu-Lapulapu and Mandaue. The study used a scenario-based researcher-made assessment tool to gather the data needed. The researchers used frequency count, percent, mode, and weighted to treat the data. The study revealed that in the simulator-based method, the subject’s performance in the chosen competencies of the course PASGT obtained a much higher mean interpreted as very satisfactory. It also established a significant difference between the subject’s performance in the simulator-based and the hands-on methods. The findings concluded that the simulation-based methods in teaching and learning the PASGT course have substantial educational effects. With particular consideration to the students’ psychomotor domain, the medium provides learning in a manner that is very suitable to the current practices of the younger generation.</p> Dominic Rey Y. Singuit, Betaliano S. Villalas, Rey Q. Aranzado Copyright (c) 2023 Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology Wed, 22 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Rejuvenation of Pesticide Polluted Soil from the Isolated Microbial Flora of Agricultural Field <p>The widespread use of pesticides leads to imbalances in the qualities of soil, water, and air environments. Pesticides can only be broken down more quickly by combining microbial consortia of native and naturally occurring bacteria isolated from certain polluted environments. To rejuvenate the pesticide polluted soil, the samples was collected and microbial flora were isolated from the soil samples. These floras were introduced into the three pesticides like Carbaryl, Monocrotophos and Malathion (CMM) for the biodegradation activity. Standard microbiological protocols were followed to isolate the microbial flora from the collected soil samples. The isolated microbial strains were confirmed with the isolation of genomic DNA. The biodegradation of pesticides such as Carbaryl, Monocrotophos and Malathion (CMM) were performed with the isolated strains. The bacterial strains such as <em>Pseudomonas sp, Bacillus sp and Micrococcus sp;</em> actinomycetes – Azatobacter; fungal species such as <em>Aspergillus fumigatus, Gliocladium sp and Humicola sp</em> were isolated from the agricultural field. Among these Bacillus sp showed highest biodegradation activity against the three pesticides. These investigations screened the best microorganism for several pesticides, including carbaryl, Monocrotophos, and Malathion (CMM), the best degradation methods, and the best degradation environment, providing a more practical reference for subsequent study.</p> J. Sivakumar Copyright (c) 2023 Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology Wed, 22 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of WSSV-Infection on Relative Expression of Hemocyanin Genes in Litopenaeus Vannamei (Boone, 1931) <p>A <em>Litopenaeus vannamei </em>injected with the serum from the shrimps infected with WSSV-showed the typical symptoms of white spot syndrome at 48hpi. These include lethargy, lack of appetite, reduced and disoriented swimming activity. The negative control and serum from healthy shrimps did not show any band and the test samples contained a band corresponding to 310 bp which was like that of the positive control. Thus, the test samples were confirmed positive for the WSSV-infection. The mean serum protein concentration in healthy shrimp was 86.4 ± 6.3 mg/ml. on the other hand the serum protein concentration of WSSV-injected shrimps declined linearly and significantly to 58.8 ± 3.9, 46.2 ± 5.32, and 38.7 ± 6.7 mg/ml at 12, 24, and 48 hpi, respectively. Relative quantity of hemocyanin gene (I) expression in WSSV-injected shrimps increased gradually from 6 to 48 hpi. Analyses of relative quantification of hemocyanin gene (II) in the experimental groups showed that the relative quantity in WSSV- injected shrimps increased from 6 hpi up to 24 hpi, whereas at 48 hpi the WSSV-injected shrimps showed a decrease in relative quantity of hemocyanin gene (II). Analyses of relative quantification of hemocyanin gene (III) in the experimental groups showed that the relative quantity in WSSV-injected shrimps increased slowly from 6 to 12 hpi and the increase was found to be high at 24 and 48 hpi. The relative quantity increased in sham-injected shrimps. The melt curve analysis showed two peaks corresponding to 18S rRNA and hemocyanin gene I, II and III, respectively. The objective of the present study was directed towards the relative quantification of the hemocyanin genes (I, II and III) in <em>L. vannamei</em> upon WSSV-infection.</p> S. Eshwaran, R. Manikandan, S. S. Jayaraj, R. Thiagarajan, M. Arumugam Copyright (c) 2023 Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology Wed, 22 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization of Tannery Effluent and Efficiency Assessment of Central Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) at Savar in Bangladesh <p>The industry discharges a large volume of effluent, many of which contain lots of chemicals and toxic substances that have the potential to cause distress to the environment. The study focused on analyzing various physicochemical parameters of the effluent discharge from the Central Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) at the Savar Tannery Industrial Zone. The effluent was collected four times (pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon) a year, from 2021-2022. The effluent was inspected for vital water quality parameters, such as pH, COD, BOD, TDS, TSS, NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>, SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>, HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>, PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup>, Cl<sup>-</sup>, Na, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb. Most of the parameters exceed the standard permissible limit of the Department of Environment, Bangladesh (DoE, BD), NQES, and ISW-BDS for inland water. The mean concentrations of COD, BOD, TSS, and Cr were 337, 97.5, 209, and 6.1 mg/L, and these values were far above the permissible limit with a removal efficiency of 51%. The study observed that industrial discharge of unproperly treated effluent deteriorates the surface water quality and causes huge threats to aquatic life and sustainable water resource management.</p> U. Monira, G. S. Sattar, Md. Golam Mostafa Copyright (c) 2023 Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology Wed, 22 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Ethanolic and Chloroform Extracts of Lantana Camara Flowers on the Second Instar Stage of Anopheles Mosquito Larvae <p>In addition to environmental degradation and financial issues due to their high cost, the use of synthetic pesticides, particularly insecticides, has led to ecological issues such pest tolerance to chemicals, a return of pests, and harm to human and animal health. Natural goods are a safer and more environmentally friendly option that has minimal or no mammalian toxicity. Wide-ranging testing is being done on numerous plant items for their potential as repellents. Plant products have insecticidal properties because they include secondary metabolites. Given its potential for commercial use, the plant merits further examination. Given their effectiveness against them and ease of biodegradability, several botanicals are increasingly emerging as a feasible component in parasite management techniques. In the current investigation, the plant Lantana camara’s larvicidal activity has been selected and investigated and given its potential for commercial use, the plant merits further examination.</p> S. Venu, J. Sivakumar, R. Dhivya, S. Bhuvaneswari, M. Rajkumar Copyright (c) 2023 Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology Sat, 25 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000