Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology https://ojs.trp.org.in/index.php/ajsat <p>AJSAT is covering all aspects of Science and Applied Technology areas. Topics include, but are not limited to: Chemistry, Physics, Astronomy, Earth Science, Environmental Science, Biology, Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems Science, etc.</p> en-US editor.trp@trp.org.in (Dr.M.Ramya) submissions@trp.org.in (Ms. S. Sukanya) Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.8 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Barriers to Practice of Pharmaceutical Care in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria https://ojs.trp.org.in/index.php/ajsat/article/view/3273 <p>Pharmaceutical care continues to gain worldwide acceptance since its introduction over two decades ago. In Nigeria, a variety of forces is slowing down the implementation of pharmaceutical care in healthcare institutions. This study was carried out to determine the barriers to implementation of pharmaceutical care in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. These were achieved through the use of a prospective, cross-sectional study using a structured, pretested and self-administered questionnaire to 55 hospital pharmacists in Asaba in July 2018. The four-part Questionnaire evaluated demographics of respondents, knowledge of and reasons for not implementing pharmaceutical care and willingness to practice pharmaceutical care if perceived barriers were removed. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS Version 22. Descriptive and chi square statistics were obtained. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 55 questionnaires were administered to hospital pharmacists practicing at the Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, in 2018. Fifty questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 90.9%. Majority (80.0%) were aged 21-30 years, there were more females (56.0%) than males, most were single (74.0%), a third (34.0%) were holders of the Doctor of Pharmacy degree, nearly half (42.0%) were in practice for less than one year. Barriers identified were difficulty in accessing patients clinical and laboratory data, lack of acceptance by physicians and nurses, lack of space, inadequate number of pharmacists, pharmaceutical care is not feasible without financial incentives, pharmaceutical care required too much time, lack of clinical knowledge, Pharmaceutical care required too much effort, and lack of communication skills. Analysis of sex versus respondents was significant for those who felt pharmaceutical care was not feasible without financial incentives. (c<sup>2 </sup>= 12.236, *P = 0.022) with female respondents taking the lead (56.0%). This study revealed barriers that are militating against the practice of pharmaceutical care in the study area. Concerted efforts to address these challenges that will involve the management of the hospital, update lectures, attitudinal change by pharmacists and introduction of remuneration for additional services rendered by pharmacists are recommended.</p> Kingsley Amibor, B. O. Agbese, C. Mokwunye Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology https://ojs.trp.org.in/index.php/ajsat/article/view/3273 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Study of Activity Based Learning (ABL) and their Challenges in Implementation for Higher Education Institutions https://ojs.trp.org.in/index.php/ajsat/article/view/3216 <p>Activity based learning (ABL) is apprehended to be a promising approach that improves student learning in higher education. Empirical studies on ABL with a focus on student have been revealed cognitive outcomes, affective outcomes, behavioral outcomes and challenges in implementation. Future researches should investigate more about student learning outcomes and implementation of ABL for knowledge utilization and management.</p> Binoy Kurian Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology https://ojs.trp.org.in/index.php/ajsat/article/view/3216 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Technique Homotopy Perturbation Method Operated on Laplace Equation https://ojs.trp.org.in/index.php/ajsat/article/view/3295 <p>In this study, we introduce a technique acknowledged as the Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) for obtaining the particular solution of two-dimensional Laplace’s Equation with conditions like Dirichlet, Neumann and the use of different boundary prerequisites to exhibit this method’s potential and reliability. The steady-state condition, which depends on temperature, converts Laplace’s equation into a greater dimension and deforms the equal into a Partial Differential Equation (PDE). Here we additionally tried to discover a comparative measurement in terms of literature survey [1] between the results bought by means of the HPM approach and the same result for the identical equation introduced in any other technique eventually referred to as the Variable Separation Method (VSM). The consequences exhibit that HPM has excessive efficiency and effectiveness in fixing Laplace’s equation. Also dealing without delay with the trouble has a wide variety of benefits and furnished the approximate solution which converges very unexpectedly to a correct answer.</p> S. Samajdar, M. H. Khandakar, A. Purkait, S. Das, Banashree Sen Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology https://ojs.trp.org.in/index.php/ajsat/article/view/3295 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Organic Manure: Amirthakaraisal and Cow Dung on Performances of Greengram (Vigna radiata) Grown in Pots https://ojs.trp.org.in/index.php/ajsat/article/view/3319 <p>Green gram (<em>Vigna radiata</em>) is an annual important pulse crop that mainly grown in tropical, subtropical and, temperate regions of Asia. Traditionally it is grown on commercial scale with synthetic fertilizer and on subsistent scale with organic manure. Amirthakaraisal is an organic liquid nutrient solution containing of N, P and K. The present study was conducted with the objective of investigating the effect of combination of Amirthakaraisal and Cow dung on the growth and yield of <em>Vigna radiata</em>. The experiment was conducted as a pot experiment with six treatments and ten replicates in a completely randomised design (CRD). Which was maintained in open field. The treatments are T1 -100% Amirthakaraisal, T2 - 75% Amirthakaraisal and 25% Cow dung, T3 - 50% Amirthakaraisal and 50% Cow dung, T4 - 25% Amirthakaraisal and 75% Cow dung, T5 - 100% Cow dung, T6 – control(zero treatments). Treatments were applied two week interval according to the pot area. Growth and yield parameters were measured and analysed statistically using ANOVA and means were compared with DMRT at 5% significance level.. The results proved that T3- 50% Amirthakaraisal and 50% Cow dung significantly (P &lt; 0.05) increased the dry weight of shoot (27.27 %), , number of pods per plant (31.03 %), weight of 100 seeds (29.78 %), total yield (33.73 %) in comparison to plants without application of organic manure(T6). T3 given best results when comparing with T1, T2, T4, T5 and also T3 plants were expose their 50% flowering 30 days after planting compared with other treatments. Therefore, it could be concluded with the final yield of <em>Vigna radiata </em>that application of 50% Amirthakaraisal and 50% Cow dung to soil increased the growth and yield performance of <em>Vigna radiata.</em></p> H. Priyanth, S. Sutharsan, L. M. Rifnas, S. Srikrishnah Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology https://ojs.trp.org.in/index.php/ajsat/article/view/3319 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmaceutical Care Practices among Hospital Pharmacists in a State in Nigeria https://ojs.trp.org.in/index.php/ajsat/article/view/3339 <p>Pharmaceutical care is a patient centered, outcome-oriented practice, requiring collaboration between the pharmacist, other care givers and the patient. In Nigeria, pharmacy practice is still majorly product based. Implementation of pharmaceutical care in hospitals in Nigeria since its introduction several years ago has remained erratic. This study evaluated practice of pharmaceutical care among hospital pharmacists in Delta State. This was a prospective study using a structured, pretested and self-administered questionnaire to 55 hospital and administrative pharmacists that gathered in Asaba in July 2018 for the quarterly meeting of their Association. The four-part Questionnaire evaluated demographics of respondents, pharmaceutical care practices carried out, reasons for not implementing pharmaceutical care and suggestions on how pharmaceutical care can be implemented in their various hospitals. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS Version 22. Descriptive and chi square statistics were obtained. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. 55 questionnaires were distributed, 50 were returned, giving a response rate of 90.9%. Majority (40.0%) were aged 20-29 years; there were more males (52.0%) than females. Majority (56.0%) were married, about one quarter (24.0%) were in practice for 1-5 years. More than half (58.0%) were sole holders of Bachelor of Pharmacy degree. Majority (66.0%) were practicing at the Federal Medical Centre, Asaba. Pharmaceutical care practices carried out included monitoring patient response to therapy (58.0%), identification of errors in patient prescriptions (88.0%), interventions to correct detected errors (86.0%), documentation of pharmaceutical care activities (72.0%), medication review with physicians (54.0%), participation in pharmacists ward rounds (16.0%). However, only 4.0% of respondents counselled patients during interventions to rectify drug therapy problems. Among factors responsible for non-implementation of pharmaceutical care were lack of collaboration (20.0%) lack of space (6.0%), non-acceptance by physicians and nurses and lack of personnel were 10.0% each. Association between location of practice and monitoring improvement in patient response was statistically significant (c<sup>2 </sup>=23.112, P = 0.003). Practice of pharmaceutical care among pharmacists that converged for the quarterly meeting was average. There is need for pharmacists to improve in the area of monitoring patient’s response to pharmacotherapy as well as sharpen their counselling skills so that they can render effective drug information services to patients and other healthcare providers.</p> Amibor Kingsley Chiedu, Ujomu Christopher Akamaguna, Enaike Evangeline Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology https://ojs.trp.org.in/index.php/ajsat/article/view/3339 Sat, 29 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Acute Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos on Histological Alterations in the Anomuran Crab, Emerita asiatica (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) https://ojs.trp.org.in/index.php/ajsat/article/view/3381 <p>Acute toxicity of Chlorpyrifos on histological alterations in the different organs like gills, hepatopancreas and ovary of anomuran crab, Emerita asiatica was studied. Though Emerita asiatica is not a commercially viable crab, but it plays a vital role in the environment to maintain a stable marine ecosystem. Several steps and precautions measures should be taken to conserve these members of the marine food chain to have a stable ecosystem and also to protect this species from extinction. Thus, it can be concluded that the use of Chlorpyrifos which has been legally banned in India is justified. It has been proved by several workers and has been conformed in present investigation that use of this Chlorpyrifos causes serious damage to the vital organ of sand crabs gill, hepatopancreas and ovary. The application of Chlorpyrifos could be reduced in the agricultural field to nearby coastal regions.</p> J. Sivakumar, S. Bhuvaneswari, S. Venu, S. Sivakumar, C. Shanmugasundaram, P. Sankarganesh Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Journal of Science and Applied Technology https://ojs.trp.org.in/index.php/ajsat/article/view/3381 Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000