Newspaper Portrayal of Gender-Based Violence during COVID-19 Lockdown in Bangladesh
Keywords:IPV, COVID-19, Violence, Abuse, Reproductive Health
SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19, has emerged as the most serious public health threat of the contemporary age. More than 4.2 million individuals died as a result of this infectious virus, which has infected about 200 million people. Coronavirus spread quickly across the world due to its infectious nature, resulting in a large number of deaths. In many ways, COVID-19 had an impact on nearly every nation in economic, social, cultural, political, and other spheres. The study aims to find out the portrayal of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in popular English newspapers in Bangladesh. Data were collected from the 12 most-read English dailies that published news on IPV all over the country. The study used a summative approach of the qualitative content analysis method as formulated by Bengtsson (2016). Findings show that the frequency of published news on IPV considerably increased amid COVID-19 induced lockdown in Bangladesh. The causes of such incidents go back to deep-rooted patriarchal norms, gender roles and the powerlessness of women. Many incidents occurred during lockdown that, as victims reported, were triggered by shocks like sudden joblessness, chronic stress, abject poverty, etc. caused by the pandemic. Such violence often affected women’s physical, mental and reproductive health. Many incidents like stabbing to death, killing with the home weapon, and physical abuse became national headings amid lockdown. The study suggests undertaking special protection measures for women in any such future event. Awareness and cooperation of people along with appropriate policies can be major steps towards combating the impacts of COVID-19.
Alhusen, J. L., Ray, E., Sharps, P., & Bullock, L. (2015). Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy: Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes. Journal of Women’s Health, 100-106. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2014.4872.
Ali, A. (2020, May 5). A socio-legal analysis of domestic abuse. The Daily Star. https://www.thedailystar.net/law-our-rights/news/socio-legal-analysis-domestic-abuse-1899505.
ALJAZEERA. (18 April 2020). Locked down with abusers: India sees surge in domestic violence. Retrieved 26 July 2021, from: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/4/18/locked-down-with-abusers-india-sees-surge-in-domestic-violence.
Anderson, K. L. (2005). Theorizing gender in intimate partner violence research. Sex roles, 52(11), 856.
Ara, A. (2020, May 18). After job loss, comes domestic violence. The Financial Express. Retrieved from https://thefinancialexpress.com.bd/national/after-job-loss-comes-domestic-violence.
Begum, D. H. (2020, June 20). Asian Age. Domestic violence in corona pandemic: Where we are and what needs to be done. Retrieved from https://dailyasianage.com/news/232812/domestic-violence-in-corona-pandemic-where-we-are-and-what-needs-to-be-done.
Bengtsson, M. (2016). How to plan and perform a qualitative study using content analysis, Nursing Plus Open, 2, 8-14, ISSN: 2352-9008, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.npls.2016.01.001.
Campbell, A. M. (2020). An increasing risk of family violence during the COVID-19 pandemic: Strengthening community collaborations to save lives. Forensic Science International. Reports, 2, 100089. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsir.2020.100089.
Campbell, A. M. (2020). An increasing risk of family violence during the COVID-19 pandemic: Strengthening community collaborations to save lives. Forensic Science International: Reports.
Carlyle, K. E., Slater, M. D., & Chakroff, J. L. (2008). Newspaper coverage of intimate partner violence: Skewing representations of risk. Journal of communication, 58(1), 168-186.
Dhaka Tribune (6 May 2020). MJF: 4,249 women subjected to domestic violence during the lockdown. Retrieved 20 August 2020 from https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2020/05/06/mjf-4-249-women-endure-domestic-violence-amid-lockdown
Domestic Violence (n.d.). Retrieved from Merriam-Webster https: //www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/domestic%20violence.
Domestic Violence against Men. (2020, February 8). United States of America USA.
Elo S. & Kyngas H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(1), 107-115. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04569.x
Gearhart, S., Patron, M. P., Hammond, T. A., Goldberg, D. W., Klein, A., & Horney, J. A. (2018). The Impact of Natural Disasters on Domestic Violence: An Analysis of Reports of Simple Assault in Florida (1999-2007). Violence and Gender, 1-7.
Gender dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic. (2020, June 21). Retrieved from The Business Standard News https://tbsnews. net/thoughts/gender-dimensions-COVID-19-pandemic-96049
Hasan, K. (2020, May 17). Dhaka Tribune. BLAST: Abusers use emotional tools to control domestic violence victims. Retrieved from https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2020/05/17/blast-perpetrator-use-emotional-psychological-tools-to-control-victims.
Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative health research, 15(9), 1277-1288.
Usher, K., Bhullar, N., Durkin, J., Gyamfi, N., & Jackson, D. (2020). Family violence and COVID‐19: Increased vulnerability and reduced options for support. International journal of mental health nursing.
Kamal, R. J. (2020, April 21). Domestic violence: A silent epidemic thrives amid the shutdown. The Business Standard. Retrieved from http://www.tbsnews.net/panorama/domestic-violence-silent-epidemic-thrives-amid-shutdown-71953.
Koenig, M. A., Ahmed, S., Hossain, M. B., & Mozumder, A. A. (2003). Women’s Status and Domestic Violence in Rural Bangladesh: Individual and Community Level Effects. Demography, 269-288.
Kohlman, S., Baig, A., Balice, G., DiRubbo, C., Plancencia, L., Skale, K., & Aquino, S. (2014). Contribution of media to the normalization and perpetuation of domestic violence. Austin journal of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, 1(4), e6-e6.
Krug, E. G., Dahberg, L. L., Mercy, J. A., et al., editors (2002). World report on violence and health. Geneva (CH): World Health Organization.
Leone, J. M., Johnson, M. P., Cohan, C. L., & Lloyd, S. E. (2004). Consequences of male partner violence for low‐income minority women. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(2), 472-490.
Mahpara, P. (2020). Phase III: Media Tracking of Domestic Violence, Bangladesh. BRAC Institute of Governance and Development (BIGD). Retrieved 20 August 2020 from https://bigd.bracu.ac.bd/publications/phase-iii-media-tracking-of-domestic-violence-bangladesh.
Manusher Jonno Foundation. (2020). Manusher Jonno Foundation. A Telephone Survey: Initiative of Manusher Jonno Foundation. Retrieved from file: https:///C:/Users/Yasha%20Mannan/Downloads/Documents/Final-Report-of-Telephone-Survey-on-VAW-June-2020.pdf.
Meade, A. (2015, 25 November). Media often distort domestic violence, study finds. The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/nov/25/media-often-sensationalise-domestic-violence-reporting-study-finds.
Mitchell, C., & Anglin, D. (2008). Intimate partner violence. In Women’s Health in Clinical Practice, 355-384. Humana Press, 356.
MJF, M. J. (2020). Violence against Women and Children: COVID 19. Dhaka: Manusher Jonno Foundation.
MoWCA, M. O. (2010). Domestic Violence (Prevention and Protection). Bangladesh: Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh.
Naved, R. T., Samuels, F., Gupta, T., Talukder, A., Le Masson, V., & Yount, K. M. (2017). Understanding intimate partner violence in Bangladesh through a male lens. London, UK: Overseas Development Institute.
Reuters. (2020, 27 April). ‘Another pandemic’: In Latin America, domestic abuse rises amid lockdown. Retrieved 26 July 2021, from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-latam-domesticviol-idUSKCN2291JS
Royal College of Psychiatrists. (2002). Policy statement on domestic violence. Council Report CR102. London (GB): Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Sky News. (24 April 2020). Coronavirus: 4,000 domestic abuse arrests in London in just six weeks, police say. Retrieved 26 July 2021,from: https://news.sky.com/story/coronavirus-4-000-domestic-abuse-arrests-in-london-in-just-six-weeks-police-say-11978358.
Stewart, D. E., MacMillan, H., & Wathen, N. (2013). Intimate partner violence. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 58(6), E1-E15.
The Daily Star. (2020). M’singh woman strangled to death by husband: police. Retrieved from https://www.thedailystar.net/city/news/msingh-woman-strangled-death-husband-police-1888726.
The Daily Star. (2020, June 28).Beating woman: Brother-in-law arrested in Kurigram. Retrieved from https://www.thedailystar. net/country/news/beating-woman-brother-law-arrested-kurigram-1921745.
The Financial Express. (2020, May 20). Domestic violence during lockdown. The Financial Express. https://thefinancialexpress.com.bd/editorial/domestic-violence-during-lockdown-1589989400.
The New Nation. (2020, May 7). Domestic violence is a serious problem and must not be ignored. The New Nation, 3.
UN News. (2019, November 24). A staggering one-in-three women, experience physical, sexual abuse. Retrieved from https://news.un.org/en/story/2019/11/1052041 .
Weber R. P. (1990). Basic Content Analysis. Sage Publications, Newburry Park, CA.
WHO. Understanding and addressing violence against women. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/77 432/WHO_ RHR_12.36_eng.pdf;sequence=1.
World Health Organization. (2018). Violence against Women Prevalence Estimates. Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/health-topics.
Zoo Info (2021). Top 10 English Newspaper in Bangladesh | Zoo Info Tech. Retrieved 3 February 2021, from https://www.zooinfotech.com/top-10-english-newspaper-in-bangladesh.