Levels of Consumption Expenditure in Rural Non-Farm Households in Punjab


  • Rupinder Kaur Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India
  • Anupama Professor, Department of Economics, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India
  • Jasdeep Singh Toor Professor, Department of Economics, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India
  • Kuldeep Singh Assistant Professor, Department of Post Graduate Studies, Punjabi University Regional Centre, Bathinda, Punjab, India




Non-Farm, Households, Consumption, Per Capita Consumption, Distribution


The study depicts that an average rural non-farm household spends Rs. 16,138.61 per year on consumption. The Bathinda district has the highest expenditure, followed by the Jalandhar and Gurdaspur districts. Rural non-farm households typically consume in a subsistence-oriented manner. Food goods account for a significant portion of these categories’ overall consumer spending. Rural non-farm households in the Bathinda district spend 1.20 times as much on consumption per person as non-farm households in the Gurdaspur district, and per-household consumption expenditure in the Bathinda district is 1.05 times the per-household consumption expenditure of non-farm households in Gurdaspur district. In comparison to the other two districts, the Gurdaspur district has a higher concentration of consumer expenditures. The average propensity to spend for non-farm families is less than one, however, for the lower four-income decile groups the non-farm households’ average consumption expenditure is larger than their average income.


Basant, R. (1993). Diversification of Economic Activities in Rural Gujarat: Key Results of a Field Study, Working Paper Series No. 53. Ahmedabad: Gujarat Institute of Development Research. Retrieved from https://labordoc.ilo.org/permalink/41ILO_INST/kc2336/alma993035393402676.

Black, J., Hashimzade, N, & Myles, G. (2012). A Dictionary 0f Economics 4th edition. Oxford University Press, 128. DOI: 10.1093/acref/9780199696321.001.0001. Retrieved from https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199696321.001.0001/acref-9780199696321.

Geetha, B. (2014). A study on socio-economic conditions of non-farm workers in rural Tamil Nadu with Special Reference to Tiruvallur District, An unpublished thesis Department of Economics, University of Madras. P8.

Himanshu, Lanjouw, P., Mukhopadhyay, A & Murgai, R. (2011). Non-farm diversification and rural poverty decline: A perspective from Indian sample survey and village study data. Asia Research Centre Working Paper 44. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/220821.pdf. [Assessed on 15/06/2017].

Kumar, R., Deb, U., Bantilan, C., Nagaraj, N. & Bhattarai, M. (2014). Economic growth and rural transformation in eastern India: Strategies for inclusive growth. 15th Annual Conference of the Indian Society of Labour Economics (ISLE), 17 December 2014, Ranchi, Jharkhand. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275021497_Economic_growth_and _rural_transformation_in_Eastern_India_Strategies_for_Inclusive_Growth [Assessed on 12/04/2021].

Mehrotra, S., Parida, J., Sinha, S. & Gandhi, A. (2014). Explaining employment trends in the Indian Economy: 1993-94 to 2011-12. Economic and Political Weekly, 49(32), 49-57.

Reddy, A. A., Reddy, D. N., Nagaraj, N. & Bhattarai, M. (2014). Emerging trends in rural employment structure and rural labour markets in India. Working Paper Series, 56, 1-22, Indian Agriculture Research Institute. Retrieved from http://works.bepress.com/ aamarender_reddy/8 [Assessed on 10/01/2020].

Saha, P. & Verick, S. (2016). State of rural labour markets in India. ILO Asia-Pacific Working Paper Series. Retrieved from https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/asia/---ro-bangkok/---sro-new_delhi/documents/publication/wcms_501310.pdf. [Assessed on 10/4/2021].

Saxena, N. C. (2003). The rural non-farm economy in India: Some policy issues. NRI Report No: 2752, 40. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/42389802.pdf. [Assessed on 12/03/2021].

Visaria, P. & Basant, R. (1994). Non-agricultural Employment in India: Trends and prospects. Sage Publication, New Delhi.




How to Cite

Kaur, R., Anupama, Toor, J. S., & Singh, K. . (2023). Levels of Consumption Expenditure in Rural Non-Farm Households in Punjab. Asian Review of Social Sciences, 12(2), 44–52. https://doi.org/10.51983/arss-2023.12.2.3624