Asian Review of Social Sciences <p>Asian Review of Social Sciences (ARSS) is a half-yearly double-blind peer-reviewed international journal that publishes original papers, empirical research, case studies, literature review, conceptual framework, analytical and simulation models, technical notes, and book reviews on Social Sciences.</p> The Research Publication en-US Asian Review of Social Sciences 2249-6319 Thaneermukkam Bund as an Ecological Construct: Effects of Water Pollution on Adjacent Residents <p>Thaneermukkam bund is famous as the largest mud regulator in the country. It is built on the Vembanad Lake, the largest lake in Kerala. It was built as part of the Kuttanad Development Scheme in 1974. The bund divided the lake into two parts and it connects two districts Kottayam and Alappuzha. The project was envisaged with the prevention of saltwater intrusion into the low-lying areas of Kuttanad and also to facilitate double crops of paddy in a year to the farmers of Kuttanad. The bund is proposed to control floods and also to facilitate road transportation as it connects two districts in Kerala. But apart from the proposed benefits, it has leads to some problems for the adjacent residents. The present study is based on the effects of Thaneermukkam bud on adjacent residents. The study is based on quantitative method and descriptive research design was applied. Simple random sampling was used in the study and an interview schedule was used to collect data. The study revealed that the residents on the banks of Thaneermukkam bund were facing many environmental issues like water pollution and water quality deterioration due to the presence of the bund.</p> Ani Merly Paul Lekshmi S. Kaimal Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Review of Social Sciences 2022-04-26 2022-04-26 11 1 1 6 10.51983/arss-2022.11.1.2856 Factors Affecting Women Labor Utilization in Staple Crops Value Chains Activities in Southeast Nigeria <p>This paper identified socioeconomic, institutional and technological factors affecting women labor utilization in an on-farm and less rewarding staple crop value chain activities such as clearing, cultivation, planting and weeding compared to more rewarding off-farm post-harvest activities that facilitate input and output market such as threshing, shelling, processing, storage and marketing using data collected from 400 randomly selected women farmers in southeast Nigeria during 2019/20 crop year. Multinomial-logit results show that complementary input such as the use of credit, hired labor, fertilizers, agrochemicals, more land, adult men/women and extension services had a negative relationship with women’s engagement in less rewarding farm operations. The constraint militating against women’s labor utilization in staple crop value chain activities were lack of storage facilities, lack of credit, lack of improved input, poor road network and land tenure problems. The paper recommends institutional framework through extension education, technology-supply industries, financial institutions, improved road network to enhance women’s labor engagement in more beneficial value chains activities such as post-harvest operations since women farmer selling to the market are more rewarding than engagement in clearing, cultivation, planting and weeding so that more women will participate in the market.</p> Patience Ifeyinwa Opata Adaku Briget Ezeibe Chukwuma Otum Ume Juliana Chinasa Iwuchukwu Sylvia Chinasa Onyenekwe Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Review of Social Sciences 2022-04-26 2022-04-26 11 1 7 16 10.51983/arss-2022.11.1.2924 Application of SDT to Promote Students Motivation and Engagement in Learning: Non-Asian and Asian Contexts <p>Self-determination theory was introduced by Ryan and Deci in 1985. It is discussed about three needs; competence, relatedness, and autonomy. It is basically focussed on intrinsic motivation. There are many research studies have been undertaken using SDT all over the world. The main aim of this study is to examine the SDT studies conducted to promote students’ motivation and engagement in learning. There are two research objectives formulated in this study; to examine the SDT studies conducted in non-Asian countries and to examine the SDT studies conducted in Asian countries. A semi-systematic review approach was applied to review the literature. This literature review mainly focused on research articles that investigated the SDT studies. Most of the reviewed literature w a s published in online journals. The selected articles were read, and the findings following the reviewed literature are presented based on the identified research objectives guiding the study. The document analysis was used as the data analysis method in this study. Reviewing both non-Asian and Asian studies, it could be concluded that, Self-determination theory has been used in those both contexts extensively to promote students’ motivation and engagement in learning. It is proven the SDT is a validated theory to increate students’ intrinsic motivation in different cultural contexts. It is implied that research literature to be further reviewed to examine the application of SDT in different other contexts.</p> K. D. R. L. J. Perera Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Review of Social Sciences 2022-04-26 2022-04-26 11 1 17 21 10.51983/arss-2022.11.1.2935 The Impact of Work Stress on Employee Performance: A Study among the Executive Officers of State Universities in Sri Lanka <p>Stress is a one of the challenges that employees experience in a work place almost everywhere in the world. In the world today, work is the primary cause for stress in any kind of job since it is demanding and changing in the competitive world. for its employees to perform their job effectively and efficient manner. Work stress may attribute to employee’s life imbalance which may tend to depression and conflicts such as workplace conflict, role conflict, role ambiguity and workload. Main purpose of the present study was to explore the impact of work stress on employee performance among executive officers of State Universities in Sri Lanka. Five (5) stress factors; such as role ambiguity, underutilization of skills, work overload, organizational climate and relationships in organization and personality factors were identified as the independent variables as per literature review. Selected method for conducting the research was survey method. All the executive officers attached to state universities (17 conventional universities functioning under University Grants Commission) comprised the population for the study and convenient sampling technique was used. Primary data was gathered though self-administered questionnaire with 5 point Likert scale range of strongly agree (5) as highest range and strongly disagree (1) as lowest range and the questionnaire was distributed as a google form via WhatsApp groups and emails. 77 responses from executive officers were collected and analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, logistic regression analysis (with ANOVA) and Cronbach Alpha. As per reliability statistics, it indicates that data set is more reliable (Cronbach alpha value = 0.9292) in the study. The level of stress on employee performance as per respondents’ feedback was identified that the almost all the respondents expressed their view as neutral (neither agree nor disagree). It interprets that stress is somewhat ordinary fact and executive officers in the State Universities in Sri Lanka may not consider the stress as an influencing factor that affect their work performance. Correlation Analysis results of the study shows strong correlation (r=0.891) between work stress and employee performance at significance level of 0.05. As per regression analysis, stress factors of role ambiguity (p=0.036) and personality factors (p=0.002) have significant impact on employee performance while there is no significant relationship between other 3 work stress factors: underutilization of skills (p=0.941), work overload (p=0.668) and organizational climate and relationships in organization (0.500) and employee performance.</p> S. A. S. Priyadarshani Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Review of Social Sciences 2022-04-26 2022-04-26 11 1 22 27 10.51983/arss-2022.11.1.3041 The Emerging Trends and Patterns of Non-State Actors Involvement in Crime Prevention and Control in South-West Nigeria: Old Wine in New Bottle <p>Globally, the use of formal security apparatus is approved standard of ensuring safety of lives and property in any sane society. The most developed countries of the world has fashioned out effective security control model to guarantee safety of lives and protection of citizens properties. This security measure is one of the many challenges confronting most developing nations including Nigeria.. It is a very serious problem when a country cannot protect the lives and properties of its citizens. It is even a bigger problem when the lives of its citizens mean nothing to the government of the day. The continuous incidence of boko-Haram and herdsmen attack, kidnapping, suicide bombing, violence and abduction is a clear indication that present government have failed its citizen in securing them and their valuable. This study examined the emerging trends and patterns on non state actor involvement in crime prevention and control in South-West Nigeria: An old wine in new bottle. The paper adopted the Karl Mark (1874) theory of exploitation as its theoretical current. The study made used of the survey research design. Sample size of 200 was determined using Yamane sample size technique. The cluster, simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used to select respondents for the study. The study made use of questionnaire and key informant interviews as instruments for data collection. Simple percentage tables and frequency were employed to present quantitative data. Qualitative data was analyzed using content analysis technique and ethnographic summaries. The results revealed that the Non state actors involvement in security via Amotekun has drastically reduced crime rate, safeguard lives and property, promote socio-economic development, exposes criminals, promote peace and unity amongst others. The paper recommended that the government must make security a top priority by providing all that is required to guarantee safety of lives and properties of its citizens’. The citizens must support the government and its agencies in all means possible to reduce crime rate in the area. Effective legislation, enforcement and adequate sanction should be advocated for those caught to be perpetrating crime or sabotaging crime prevention and control efforts of the government.</p> Egbo Ken Amaechi Akan Kevin Akpanke Owoseni Joseph Sina Oluwafemi Fayomi Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Review of Social Sciences 2022-04-26 2022-04-26 11 1 28 35 10.51983/arss-2022.11.1.3068 The Types and Determinants of Child Abuse in Sri Lanka <p>This study examines types and determinants of child abuse in Sri Lanka. Further, the study provides the demographic and social characteristics of victims who are aged below 18 years as well as their family background in Sri Lanka. There is an increasing trend of different types of child abuses globally as well as nationally. In Sri Lankan context, child sexual abuse reveals study mainly based on the secondary data and the main source of data was the National Child Protection Authority of Sri Lanka. Sample size includes all the complaints on child abuse from 2015-2020 to the NCPA Sri Lanka. The analysis of determinants of child abuse in Sri Lanka reveals as to who are the most vulnerable group for child abuse in Sri Lanka and what are the associated factors to be a child victim. Reporting child abuses have highly determined with the school vacation period and seasonal variation has affected by Covid-19 pandemic in 2020. Migration of parents has a negative impact on a child victim for abuse. Especially, the family background is a primarily determined factor to be a child victim. The nearest relatives to the family have been the major abuser of the children. Types of child abuse have analyzed based on the Penal Code and other child right related acts and regulations in Sri Lanka. Majority of the child abuses reported are related with the Penal Code and its amendments. Child right violation is at the highest level and the trend has shown a slightly declining pattern of child abuse but, still the number of abuses is at a higher level. However, the awareness programmes should be improved from school level and the knowledge on sexual and reproductive health also have to be improved to prevent child abuse in Sri Lanka. </p> T. H. A. S. De Silva K. A. P. Siddhisena M. Vidanapathirana Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Review of Social Sciences 2022-04-26 2022-04-26 11 1 36 44 10.51983/arss-2022.11.1.3077 Social Dynamics of Frequent Clashes in Rural Bangladesh: A Study on Brahmanbaria District <p>Rural conflicts are becoming more intensive in recent years, predominantly political conflicts are increasing in Bangladesh. Recently, few clashes in Brahmanbaria districts gained widespread momentum in the whole country. According to a report, a total of 1437 clashes occurred in the last 2 years, which caused 151 death and many injuries. Some conflicts were assumed to be clan-based (<em>ghosti</em>) and strengthened by the aim of establishing supremacy in the area by local elites. No study has been conducted on this issue previously concerning the causes and consequences of this frequent violence. So, the study aims to explore the nature and pattern of frequent clashes and provide some recommendations based on the findings. The present study adopted qualitative methods. Primary data were collected from five selected villages from Sarail Upazila where conflicts broke out the most. Initially, the researchers used the participant observation method for understanding the issue and locating the respondents for the interview. Then, data were collected using in-depth interviews, Key informant interviews, and Focus group discussion methods. Findings of the study suggest that conflicts in Brahmanbaria are a deep-rooted problem. There are no specific causes or patterns of these clashes, yet the participation of people in these clashes increasing. Conflict breaks out for a minimal matter, later local clans and villagers join in the mob. Often, these clashes end with mutual agreement mediated by the village headman, but the animosity between or among groups remains the same which causes further clashes.</p> Arifur Rahaman Md. Tahsinul Haque Juma Akter Sinthia Md. Sabbir Ahmed Rasel Sadia Yeasmin Priti Jannaty Akter Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Review of Social Sciences 2022-04-26 2022-04-26 11 1 45 53 10.51983/arss-2022.11.1.3078 A Guide to Evaluate Academic Sources to Develop Research Paper: Source Selection in Academic Writing <p>It is significant to identify and evaluate sources in a research study to ensure their credibility to be used in an academic research paper. Each source should be evaluated in terms of being related to the research question and covering research objectives. However, despite the importance of source selection as one of the initial steps in conducting a research study, it may seem challenging for researchers to find relevant sources based on the topic of their study and evaluate them appropriately. The main aim of this chapter is to clarify the process of choosing sources for a research project. For this purpose, the process of source selection is divided into several steps including recognizing the types of available sources, their ranks, requirements of the study project, searching and searching tools, and finally the process of evaluating sources.</p> Hamed Taherdoost Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Review of Social Sciences 2022-04-26 2022-04-26 11 1 54 58 10.51983/arss-2022.11.1.3085 The Significance of Native Indian Presence in American Literature <p>The image of the Native Indian, was used on both sides of the Atlantic for many years but subsequent to the American war waged against Great Britain in 1812, the Native Indian image was given a previously unseen prominence in American literary works, and this lasted for almost half a century. The reason for this swift change of status of the Native Indians is revealed through the present paper. The works of Irving, Cooper, Longfellow, Hawthorne, and Melville have been referred to in order to strengthen my premise. Hawthorne and Melville use a technique different from the other authors who focus directly on the Native Indians thus proving their importance in American literature of the early 19<sup>th</sup> century. In <em>The Scarlet Letter</em> and <em>Moby-Dick or The Whale</em>, the respective authors, Hawthorne and Melville bring out the importance of the Native Indians through the almost imperceptible presence of the Native Indians. To understand this, a basic understanding of the plots being required, the storylines of the novels are concisely unfolded through a narrative analysis deriving from a qualitative approach. This enables the reader to understand Hawthorne and Melville’s approach to establishing the significance of the Native Indians and their sudden boost in status in the American literary sphere.</p> Manouri K. Jayasinghe Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Review of Social Sciences 2022-04-26 2022-04-26 11 1 59 62 10.51983/arss-2022.11.1.3067 Readership Habits of News Website: A Case Study Based on Big Data Analysis <p>Digitalization is the buzz word for the modern generation. Considering the purchasing power &amp; demographic dividend of this group, News organizations are eager to alter their strategy and make it millennials friendly. But, the population of youth is not homogeneous. It is yet to be studied, ‘who’ wants ‘what’. For this, a research paper conducted a case study based on big data analysis of traditional newspaper Rajasthan Patrika. The paper is an attempt to analyze the aspiration on youth with news websites. It deals with the question of how age affects the use of news portals. It answers some vital queries like how the global reach of the website affects the target groups of a traditional newspaper? It quenches the question of what sort of content is expected by its very users.</p> Amit Sharma Amitabh Srivastava Narendra Kaushik Ashutosh Kumar Pandey Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Review of Social Sciences 2022-04-26 2022-04-26 11 1 63 67 10.51983/arss-2022.11.1.3096 Resource Use Efficiency and Gross Returns from Food Grain Crops in the Low Hill Zone Economy of Himachal Pradesh <p>Resource use efficiency in agriculture is defined to include the concepts of technical efficiency, allocative efficiency and environmental efficiency. Public investment, subsidies and credit for agriculture are used in an efficient manner. There are large scale inter regional as well as inter farm variations in factor productivity due to varying influence of different factors in different regions. A number of management factors such as timeliness and method of sowing, transplanting, irrigation and application of right doses of inputs and input mix play an important role in influencing inter-farm variation in crop productivity. Growing marginalization and fragmentation of land holdings coupled with rising incidence of informal tenancies and poor rural infrastructure such as road, electricity, markets and education affect factor productivity. The availability of good quality irrigation water coupled with flexibility of irrigation and drainage system and appropriate methods of application as well as pricing of irrigation water is crucial for sustainable use of land and water resources.</p> Sikander Kumar Kishor Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 Asian Review of Social Sciences 2022-04-26 2022-04-26 11 1 68 76 10.51983/arss-2022.11.1.3126