A Study on Novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19)
Keywords:Corona Virus, COVID-19, 2019-nCOV, SARS-CoV-2, Symptoms, Transmission, Treatment, Preventions
COVID-19 is a global pandemic and life threatening virus that mainly influences the respiratory tract of mammals, consisting humans being. It was 1st isolated in 1937 from an infectious bronchitis virus in birds. Many years ago, scientists have investigated that corona virus can infect mice, horses, dogs, pigs, rats, cats, cattle and turkeys. This zoonotic virus was first identified from Wuhan City, China and presently increasing very rapidly. The world has confirmed 141,057,106 cases, which includes 3,015,043 deaths and 793,484,083 vaccine doses administered as per the WHO till 20th April, 2021. Hence the aim of this paper is to provide a detailed review of COVID-19 including their history, origin, characteristics, symptoms and impacts along with preventive measures to be taken to restrict the outbreak of this evil virus of on human life.
R. Dandona, “Nanshanchen- epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A Descriptive Study,” Vol. 6736, No. 20, pp. 30211-7, 2020. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140.
B. Gates, “Responding to Covid-19: a once-in-a-century pandemic” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 382, No. 18, pp. 1677-1679, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmp2003762.
R. Varala and H. Bollikolla, “nCovid-19 in 2020: From Despair to hope”, Coronaviruses, Vol. 1, pp. 9-12, 2020. DOI:10.274/2666796701999200621202839.
T. P. Velavan and C. G. Meyer, “The Covid-19 epidemic”, Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 278-280, 2020. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Ftmi.13383
K. V. Holmes and L. Enjuane, “The SARS Coronavirus: A postgenomic era,” Science, Vol. 300, pp. 1377-1378, 2013. DOI: 10.1126/science.1086418.
K. H. Chan, L. L. Poon and V. C. C. Cheng, et al., “Detection of SARS coronavirus in patients with suspected SARS,” Emerg Infect Dis., Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 294-299, 2004. DOI: 10.3201/eid1002.030610.
J. F. C. MD, et al., “A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel Rotavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster Author links open overlay panel,” Journal of Lancet, Vol. 395, pp. 514-523, 2020.
E. I. Azhar, S. A. El-Kafrawy and S. A. Farraj et al., “Evidence for camel-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus,” N. Engl. J. Med., Vol. 26370, No. 26, pp. 2499-505, 2014. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1401505.
S. Perlman, “Another Decade, another Coronavirus,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 382, pp. 760-762, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe2001126
W. J. Guan, “Clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in china,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 2, pp.123-129, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
J. S. M. Peris, S. T. Lai and L. L. Poon, et al., “Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome,” Lanet, Vol. 361, pp.1319-1325, 2003. DOI: 10.1016/s0140-6736(03)13077-2
J. S. Peiris, C. M. Chu and V.C. Cheng, et al., “Clinical progression and viral load in a community outbreak of coronavirus-associated SARS pneumonia: a prospective study,” Lancet, Vol. 361, pp.1767-72, 2003.
V. C. Cheng, S. K. Lau, P. C. Woo and K.Y. Yuen, “Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus as an agent of emerging and remerging infection,” ClinMicrobiol Rev., Vol. 20, pp. 660-694, 2007.
Hussain, “Covid-19: India imposes lockdown for 21 days and cases rise,” BMJ, Vol. 368, pp. 109-119, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1251
O. Ozdemir, “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Diagnosis and Management (Narrative Review),” Erciyes Med J 2020, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 1-6, 2020. DOI: 10.14744/etd.2020.99836
T. Singhal, “A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19)”, Indian J Pediatr, Vol. 87, pp. 281–286, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6.
C. Huang, Y. Wang and X. Li, et al., “Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China.”, Lancet. Vol. 395, pp. 497-506, 2020.
A. Repici, R. Maselli, M. Colombo, R. Gabbiadini, M. Spadaccini, A. Anderloni, S. Carrara, A. Fugazza, M. Di Leo, P. AlessiaGaltieri, G. Pellegatta, E. Chiara Ferrara, E. Azzolini and M. Lagioia, “Coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak: what the department of endoscopy should know”, GastrointestEndosc, pp. 30245-5, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.gie.2020.03.019.
B. Hu, H. Guo and P. Zhou, et al., Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Nat Rev Microbiol, Vol. 19, pp. 141–154, 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-020-00459-7
E. Pigozzi,D. Tregnago, L. Costa, J. Insolda, E. Turati, et al., “Psychological impact of Covid-19 pandemic on oncological patients: A survey in Northern Italy”, PLOS ONE, Vol. 16, No. 3, e0248714, 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0248714
Y. Liu, A. A. Gayle, A. Wilder-Smith and J.Rocklov, “The reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher compared to SARS coronavirus,” Journal of travel medicine, pp. 1-4, 2020.
J. Gao, Z. Tian and X. Yang, “Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies”, Biosci Trends 2020, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 72-78, 2020. DOI: 10.5582/bst.2020.01047.
WHO Coronavirus (Covid-19) dashboard, [Online]. Available: https://covid19.who.int/
S. Tian, N. Hu, J. Lou, K. Chen, X. Kang, Z. Xiang, H. Chen, D. Wang, N. Liu, D. Liu, G. Chen, Y. Zhang, D. Li, J. Li, H. Lian, S. Niu, L. Zhang and J. Zhang, “Characteristics of COVID-19 infection in Beijing”, National Library of Medicine, Vol. 80, No. 4, pp. 401-406. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.02.018
M. Lazzerini, G. Putoto, “COVID-19 in Italy: momentous decisions and many uncertainties,” National Library of Medicine, 2020, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 640-650. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30110-8.
[Online]. Available: https://www.mygov.in/covid-19
D. Roy, S. Tripathy, S. Kumar Kar, N. Sharma, S. Kumar Verma and V. Kaushal, “Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety and perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic,” Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102083
H. Singh, S. Kumar and R. Kumar, “Impact of COVID-19 on economy: A Critical Review”, I Managers–Journal on Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://imanagerpublications.com/article/17632/35.
R. M. Anderson, “How will the country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic,” The Lancet, Vol. 395, pp. 931-934, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30567-5
“India under COVID-19 lockdown” The lancet, Vol. 395, 2020, DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2FS0140-6736(20)30938-7
K. Goyal et al., “Fear of COVID 2019: First suicidal case in India”, Asian J Psychiat, Vol. 49, pp.146-155, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.101989. Epub 2020 Feb 27.
[Online]. Available: https://www.mohfw.gov.in/#
R. Saravana and S. Manisha, “Unintended Consequences of Lockdowns: COVID-19 and the Shadow Pandemic” NBER Working Paper No. 27562, JEL No. I15,I18, J12,J16,O15, 2020.
D. R, M. Salvatore, R. Bhattacharyya, L. Wang, S. Mohammed, S. Purkayastha and B. Mukherjee, “Predictions, role of interventions and effects of a historic national lockdown in India’s Response to the COVID-19 pandemic: data science call to arms,” Harvard data science, pp. 123-133, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04. 15.20067256  T. J. Hwang, K. Rabheru, C. Peisah, W. Reichman, and M. Ikeda, “Loneliness and social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic”, Int Psychogeriatr, Vol. 1, pp. 1-4, 2020. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1017 %2FS1041610220000988
P. Aggarwal, M. Singh, K. Kumar and A. Bansal, “Socio- Medical and Hospitality Impacts of SARS-Cov-2 in the Indian Context”, International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, Vol. 29, No. 11, pp. 2163-2173, 2020.
P. Chetterje, “Gaps in India’s preparedness for COVID-19 control”, The Lancet, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20) 30300-5
H. Sahni and H. Sharma, “Role of Social Media during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Beneficial, Destructive or Reconstructive”, IJAM, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 70-75, 2020.
A. B. Kadam and S. R. Atre – “Negative impact of social media panic during the COVID-19 outbreak in India ”- DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taaa057
A. Haleem, M. Javaid and R. Vaishya, “Effects of COVID-19 pandemic in daily life”, Current Medicine Research and Practice. 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmrp.2020.03.011
M. Chinazzi, J.T. Davis and M. Ajelli, et al., “The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak.”Science.2020. DOI: https:// doi.org/10.1126/science.aba9757.
W. Kawohl, C. Nordt, “COVID-19, Unemployment and Suicides”, Correspondance, Vol. 1, pp. 1-2, 2020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/ S2215-0366.
A. Kumar, S. Sharma, and R. Kumar, “Importance of Universal Human Values in Education System: A Critical Review”, I Manager’s Journal of Humanities & Social Science, 2020, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 45-55.
H. Jindal, S. Kumar, and R. Kumar, “Environmental Pollution and its Impact on Public Health: A Critical Review”, Asian Review of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 11-18, 2020.
L. Snehal, and S. Pratibha, “Indirect impact of COVID-19 on environment: A brief study in Indian context”, Environmental Research, Vol. 188, pp. 109807, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.envres.2020.109807
S. Sharma, M. Zhang, Anshika, J. Gao, H. Zhang and Sri H. Kota, “Effect of restricted emissions during COVID-19 on air quality in India,” Science of The Total Environment, Vol. 728, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138878.
P. Colson, J.M. Rolain, J.C. Lagier, P. Brouqui and D. Raoult, “Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine as available weapons to fight COVID-19,” Int J Antimicrob Agents, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 105932, 2020.
N-N. Liu, J-C. Tan, J. Li, S. Li, Y. Cai and H. Wang, “COVID-19 Pandemic: Experiences in China and Implications for its Prevention and Treatment Worldwide”, Current Cancer Drug Targets, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/15680096206662004 14151419.
C. Cui, S. Tu, V. S. J. En, X. Li, X. Yao, H. Li and D. Liu, “Review on the clinical pharmacology of hydroxychloroquine sulfate for the treatment of COVID-19”, Current Drug Metabolism, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1389200221666200610172929
J.A. Anastasiou, I. Eleftheriadou, A. Tentolouris, D. Tsilingiris and N. Tentolouris, “In Vitro Data of Current Therapies for SARS-CoV-2”, Current Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 27, pp. 4542, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/0929867327666200513075430
Z. Qi and Y. Yu, “Epidemiological Features of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus Outbreak in China”, Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 20, pp. 1137, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1 568026620999200511094117
M. Costanzo, M. A. R. De Giglio and G. N. Roviello, “SARS-CoV-2: Recent Reports on Antiviral Therapies Based on Lopinavir/
Ritonavir, Darunavir/Umifenovir, Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Favipiravir and other Drugs for the Treatment of the New Coronavirus”, Current Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 27, pp. 4536, 2020. https://doi.org/10.2174/0929867327666200416131117
S. Shahab and M. Sheikhi, “Triazavirin - Potential Inhibitor for 2019-nCoV Coronavirus M Protease: A DFT Study”, Current Molecular Medicine, Vol. 20, pp. 1, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/156 6524020666200521075848
A. Antonelli, G. Elia, S. M. Ferrari, R. Foddis, S. De Marco, A. Cristaudo and P. Fallahi, “The Covid-19, Epidemiology, Clinic and Prevention”, Current Genomics, Vol. 21, pp 1, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1389202921999200427133052
K. Kuca, “The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak in China and World: A New Lesson for Public Health System”, Letters in Drug Design & Discovery, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2020.
S.C. Basak, S. Majumdar, M. Vracko, A. Nandy and A. Bhattacharjee, “A Generic Computer-Assisted Four-Pronged Approach for the Management of Emerging Global Pathogens: Some Comments on COVID-19”, Current Computer-Aided Drug Design, Vol. 16: 1, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1573409916999200 316102548
D. Sivaraman, P. S. Pradeep, S. SundarManoharan, C. RamachandraBhat, K. V. Leela and V. Venugopal, “Current Strategies and Approaches in Combating SARS-CoV-2 Virus that Causes COVID-19”, Letters in Drug Design & Discovery, Vol. 17, No. 672, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1570180817052004 03092546.
A. Antonelli, G. Elia, S. M. Ferrari, R. Foddis, S. De Marco, A. Cristaudo and P. Fallahi, “The Covid-19, Epidemiology, Clinic and Prevention”, Current Genomics, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2020. DOI: https:/doi.org/10.2174/1389202921999200427133052.
S. Albahli, “A Deep Neural Network to Distinguish COVID-19 from other Chest Diseases using X-ray Images”, Current Medical Imaging, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/157340561 6666200604163954.
G. H. Lushington, “Perspective on the COVID-19 Coronavirus Outbreak”, Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening, Vol. 23, No. 90, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/138620732302200406130010.
T. Serseg, K. Benarous and M. Yousfi, “Hispidin and Lepidine E: Two Natural Compounds and Folic Acid as Potential Inhibitors of 2019-novel Coronavirus Main Protease (2019- nCoVMpro), Molecular Docking and SAR Study”, Current Computer-Aided Drug Design, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/157340 9916666200422075440.
A. P. Peter, C. K. Wayne, P. L. Show and T. C. Ling, “Potential Pathway that Could Treat Coronaviruses (COVID-19)”, Current Biochemical Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/2212711906999200228100507
I. Gentile and L. Abenavoli, “COVID-19: Perspectives on the Potential Novel Global Threat”, Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials, Vol. 15, No. 84, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1574887115999200228100745.
S. Kumar, Poonam and B. Rathi, “Coronavirus Disease COVID-19: A New Threat to Public Health”, Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry Vol. 20, No. 599, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1568026620999200305144319
W. Liu, H.L. Zhu and Y. Duan, “Effective Chemicals against Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) in China”, Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 20, No. 603, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/156 8026620999200305145032.
A. K. Banerjee and N. Arora, “Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic: A Race Against Time”, Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1568026620999200413145654
H. Jindal, D. Kumar, Ishika, S. Kumar, and R. Kumar, “Role of Artificial Intelligence in Distinct Sector: A Study”, Asian Journal of Computer Science and Technology, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 1-12, 2021.
K. Kuca, “The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak in China and World: A New Lesson for Public Health System”, Letters in Drug Design & Discovery, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2174/1570180817999200317145125.
A.H. Banday, S.A. Shah and S. J. Ajaz, “Potential Immunotherapy against SARS-CoV-2: Strategy and Status”, Coronaviruses, Vol. 1, pp. 23-31, 2020.
S. PreetKaur and V. Gupta, “COVID-19 Vaccine: A comprehensive status report,” Virus Research, Vol. 288, No. 198114, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198114.
C. Lawrence, R. M. John, S. F. Anthony and S. Francis Collins, “A strategic approach to COVID-19 vaccine R&D,” Science,Vol. 368, No. 6494, pp. 948-950, 2020. DOI: 10.1126/science.abc5312
B. F. Haynes, L. Corey and P. Fernandes et al., “Prospects for a safe COVID-19 vaccine,” Science Translational Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 568, 2020. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abe0948
F. P. Polack, M. D. Stephen and J. Thomas et al., “Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine”, The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 383, pp. 2603-2615, 2020. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2034577
Wu and Suh-Chin, “Progress and Concept for COVID-19 Vaccine Development.” Biotechnology, Vol. 15, No. 6, 2020.