A Study on Determinants of the Emergence of Sustainable Smart Cities


  • Sadia Samar Ali Full Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering for Girls, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • M. A. Sikandar Associate Professor, Department of Management and Commerce, Maulana Azad National Urdu University (MANUU), Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Abrar Ahmad Deputy Registrar, Indira Gandhi National Open University, New Delhi, India
  • Rajbir Kaur Consultant, Panchkula, Haryana, India




Smart City, Determinants of Smart City, Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) Framework, Urban Governance


The urbanization is the moment of people from the countryside to city seeking employment and other basic amenities to improve their life better. As per the World Bank data, today about 4.4 billion (56%) inhabitants live in big cities and the numbers are rising steadily. The city life has been posting major challenges to the city-planners and governments to meet the expectation of city life. The concept of smart city is basically how the big cities are governed by using newer and smarter technologies in every sphere of city life ranging from connectivity to financial transaction. The digital technologies and data collected by the cities through various ICT like IoT may considerably raise the efficiency bar to deliver improved services to its dwellers. This exploratory study examines the determinants and sub-determinants and their rankings through statistical analysis by using Technology-Organization-Environment framework model.


Accenture (2015). Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI). ICT Solutions for 21st Century Challenges. Retrieved from https://smarter2030.gesi.org/downloads/Full_report.pdf.

Agarwal, R., & Prasad, J. (1998a). The antecedents and consequents of user perceptions in information technology adoption. Decision Support Systems, 22, 15-29.

Aghion, P. et al., (2009). The causal impact of education on growth: evidence from US, mimeo, Harvard University.

Aghion, P., Bloom, N., Blundell, R., Griffith, R., Howitt, P. (2005). Competition and innovation: an inverted U relationship, Oxford Journals, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120(2), 701-728.

Ahuja, G., Lampert, C. M., & Tandon, V. (2008). Moving beyond Schumpeter: Management research on the determinants of technological innovation. Academy of Management Annals, 2(1), 1-98.

Al Sharif, R., & Pokharel, S. (2022). Smart city dimensions and associated risks: Review of literature. Sustainable Cities and Society, 77, 103542.

Albino, V., Berardi, U., & Dangelico, R. (2015). Smart cities: Definitions, dimensions, performance, and initiatives. Journal of Urban Technology, 22(1), 3-21.

Allameh, M., Zamani, M., & Davoodi, S. M. R. (2011). The relationship between organizational culture and knowledge management: (A case study: Isfahan University). Procedia Computer Science, 3, 1224-1236. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2010. 12.197.

Bakir, N. (2016). Technology and Teacher Education: A Brief Glimpse of the Research and Practice That Have Shaped the Field. TechTrends: Linking Research and Practice to Improve Learning, 60(1), 21-29.

Bell Robert A., Jung John G., & Zacharilla Louis A. (2012, September 18). Seizing Our Destiny: 2012’s best communities to live, work, grow and prosper in - and how they got that way Create Space Independent Publishing Platform.

Bell, Robert, John Jung & Louis Zacharilla. (2012). Seizing our destiny: 2012’s best communities to live, work, grow and prosper in - and how they got that way, Intelligent Communities Forum, 2012.

Bibri S. E., & Krogstie, J. (2017). Smart sustainable cities of the future: An extensive interdisciplinary literature review. Sustain. Cities Soc., 31, 183-212, May 2017.

Bibri, S. E. (2019). The anatomy of the data-driven smart sustainable city: instrumentation, datafication, computerization and related applications. J Big Data, 6, 59. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40537-019-0221-4.

Cao, T., Wang, G., Han, W., Ye, H., Zhu, C., Shi, J., & Feng, J. (2012). Valley-selective circular dichroism of monolayer molybdenum disulphide. Nature communications, 3(1), 887.

Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C., & Nijkamp, P. (2009). Smart Cities in Europe. Series Research Memoranda 0048. VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.

Chamoso P., Rivas A., Rodríguez S., & Bajo J. (2018). Relationship recommender system in a business and employment-oriented social network, Information Sciences, 433-434, 204-220, 2018.

Clohessy T., Acton T., & Morgan L. (2014). Smart city as a service (SCaaS): A future roadmap for e-government smart city cloud computing initiatives, in Proceedings of the 7th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing, UCC 2014, 836-841, London, UK, December 2014.

Clohessy, T., Acton, T., & Morgan, L. (2014, December). Smart city as a service (SCaaS): A future roadmap for e-government smart city cloud computing initiatives. In 2014 IEEE/ACM 7th International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing, 836-841, IEEE.

Cohen, S., & Karatzimas, S. (2022). Analyzing smart cities’ reporting: do they report “smart”?. Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, 34(5), 602-621.

Cooper, R. G. (2001). Winning at New Products: Accelerating the Process from Idea to Launch. Basic Books.

European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS), Social approach to the transition to smart cities (2023). Accessed on March 26, 2023. Retrieved from https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2023/737128/EPRS_STU(2023)737128_EN.pdf.

Gambatese, J. A., & Hallowell, M. (2011). Enabling and measuring innovation in the construction industry. Construction management and economics, 29(6), 553-567.

Geels, F. W., Schot, J. (2010). The dynamics of transitions: a socio-technical perspective-a multi-level perspective on transitions. Transitions to Sustainable Development: New Directions in the Study of Long Term Transformative Change, eds Grin J, Rotmans J, Schot J (Routledge, New York), 18-28.

Giffinger, Rudolf. (2007). Smart cities: Ranking of European medium-sized cities, the Centre of Regional Science at the Vienna University of Technology.

Gooch, D., Wolff, A., Kortuem, G., & Brown, R. (2015, September). Reimagining the role of citizens in smart city projects. In Adjunct proceedings of the 2015 ACM international joint conference on pervasive and ubiquitous computing and proceedings of the 2015 ACM international symposium on wearable computers, 1587-1594.

Grin, J., Rotmans, J., Schot, J., eds (2010). Transitions to Sustainable Development: New Directions in the Study of Long Term Transformative Change (Routledge, New York).

Guedes, A. L. A., Alvarenga J. C., M., Goulart D. S. S, Rodriguez M. R. Y. R., & Soares C. A. P. (2018). Smart cities: The main drivers for increasing the intelligence of cities. Sustainability, 10(9), 3121.

Hekkert, M. P., Suurs, R. A. A., Negro, S. O., Kuhlmann, S., Smits, R. E. H. M. (2007). Functions of innovation systems: A new approach for analysing technological change. Technol Forecast Soc Change 74(4), 413-432.

Hollands R.G. (2008). Will the real smart city please stand up? Intelligent, progressive or entrepreneurial? City, 12(3), 303-320, 2008.

Hoskisson, R. E., Wright, M., Filatotchev, I., & Peng, M. W. (2013). Emerging multinationals from mid‐range economies: The influence of institutions and factor markets. Journal of Management Studies, 50(7), 1295-1321.

J. Colding and S. Barthel (2017). An urban ecology critique on the Smart City model, Journal of Cleaner Production, 164, 95-101. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.06.191.

Janssen, M. & Hoven, J. Van Den. (2015). Big and Open Linked Data (BOLD) in government: A challenge to transparency and privacy? Government Information Quarterly, 32(4), 363-368, 2015.

Janssen, M., Matheus, R., Longo, J., & Weerakkody, V. (2017). Transparency-by-design as a foundation for open government. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 11(1), 2-8.

Kanter, R. M. (2006). Innovation: The classic traps. Harvard Business Review, 84(11), 72-83, 154.

Kim T., Cho J. Y. & Lee B. G. (2013). Evolution to smart learning in public education: A case study of korean public education. Open and Social Technologies for Networked Learning, IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, Springer, 395, Berlin, Germany, 170-178.

Kitchin, R. (2014). The real-time city? Big data and smart urbanism. Geo Journal, 79, 1-14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10708-013-9516-8

Kourtit, K., Nijkamp, P., & Arribas-Bel, D. (2012). Smart cities perspective - A comparative European study by means of self-organizing maps. Innovation, 25(2), 229-246.

Küfeoğlu, S. (2022). Innovation, Value Creation and Impact Assessment. In: Emerging Technologies . Sustainable Development Goals Series. Springer, Cham. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-07127-0_1.

L. Quijano-Sánchez, I. Cantador, M. E. Cortés-Cediel, and O. Gil (2020). Recommended systems for smart cities, Information Systems, 92. DOI: 10.1016/j.is.2020.101545.

Lee, J. H., Phaal, R., & Lee, S. H. (2013). An integrated service device-technology roadmap for smart city development. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 80(2), 286- 306.

Lombardi, P., Giordano, S., Farouh, H., & Yousef, W. (2012). Modelling the smart city performance. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 25(2), 137-149.

Lytras, M. D., Visvizi, A., Chopdar, P. K., Sarirete, A. & Alhalabi, W. (2020). Information Management in Smart Cities: Turning end users’ views into multi-item scale development, validation, and policy-making recommendations. International Journal of Information Management, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2020.102146.

Markard, J., & Truffer, B. (2008). Technological innovation systems and the multi-level perspective: Towards an integrated framework. Res Policy, 37(4), 596-615.

Meijer, A., & Bolívar, M. P. R. (2016). Governing the smart city: A review of the literature on smart urban governance. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 82(2), 392-408.

Nam, T., & Pardo, T. A. (2011, June 12-15). Conceptualizing smart city with dimensions of technology, people, and institutions. In Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Digital Government Research Conference, College Park, MD, USA, ACM: New York, NY, USA, 2011. digital government innovation in challenging times.

Nanda, I., & De, R. (2022). The State of the Art in Eco-Friendly IoT. Information Management and Computer Science (IMCS), 5(1), 18-22.

Neirotti, P., & Paolucci, E. (2013). Why do firms train? Empirical evidence on the relationship between training and technological and organizational change. International Journal of Training and Development, 17(2), 93-115.

Otto, K. N., & Wood, K. L. (2001). Product Design: Techniques in Reverse Engineering and New Product Development. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River.

Pan, S., Zhou, W., Piramuthu, S., Giannikas, V., & Chen, C. (2021). Smart city for sustainable urban freight logistics. International Journal of Production Research, 59(7), 2079-2089.

Reis, J., Amorim, M., Melão, N., & Matos, P. (2018). Digital transformation: a literature review and guidelines for future research. Trends and Advances in Information Systems and Technologies, 1(6), 411-421.

Rezaei, J. (2015). Best-worst multi-criteria decision-making method. Omega, 53, 49-57.

Ridel, B., Reuter, P., Laviole, J., Mellado, N., Couture, N., & Granier, X, (2014). The revealing flashlight: Interactive spatial augmented reality for detail exploration of cultural heritage artifacts. Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage, 7(2), 2014.

Schaffers Hans, Nicos Komninos, & Marc Pallot (ed.). FIREBALL White Paper: Smart Cities as Innovation ecosystems Sustained by Future Internet, FIREBALL project, 2012.

Sharifi, A., Khavarian-Garmsir, A. R., & Kummitha, R. K. R. (2021). Contributions of smart city solutions and technologies to resilience against the COVID-19 pandemic: A literature review. Sustainability, 13(14), 8018.

The World Bank Report - Urban Development (2022). Accessed on March 26, 2023. https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/urbandevelopment/overview#:~:text= Today%2C%20some%2056%25%20of%20the,people%20will%20live%20in%20cities.

The World Economic Forum. (2015). 5 ways to make our cities smarter. Retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/10/5-ways-to-make-our-cities-smarter.

Tidd, J., & Bessant, J. R. (2018). Managing innovation: Integrating technological, market and organizational change (6th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley.

UN/DESA - United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2018). World Urbanization Prospects, The 2018 revision. Available in 2019/08/07 at https://population.un.org/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2018-KeyFacts.pdf.

UN/DESA - United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2017). World Population Prospects - The 2017 Revision. Available, in 2019/08/07, at https://population.un.org/wpp/Publications/Files/WPP2017_KeyFindings.pdf.

Walravens, N. (2012). Mobile business and the smart city: Developing a business model framework to include public design parameters for mobile city services. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 7(3), 121-135.

Walter Castelnovo, Gianluca Misuraca, & Alberto Savoldelli. (2015). Smart Cities Governance The Need for a Holistic Approach to Assessing Urban Participatory Policy Making. Social Science Computer Review, 34(1).

Washburn, D., Sindhu, U., Balaouras, S., Dines, R., Hayes, N., & Nelson, L. (2010). Helping CIOs understand ‘smart city’ initiatives: Defining the smart city, its drivers, and the role of the CIO. Forrester Research.

Lim, Y., Edelenbos, J., & Gianoli, A. (2019). Identifying the results of smart city development: Findings from systematic literature review, Cities, 95. DOI: 10.1016/j.cities.2019.102397.

Yigitcanlar, T., Velibeyoglu, K., & Martinez-Fernandez, C. (2008). Rising knowledge cities: The role of urban knowledge precincts. Journal of Knowledge Management, 12(5), 8-20.

Zahra, S. R., & Chishti, M. A. (2021). Smart Cities Pilot Projects: An IoT Perspective. In: Khan, M.A., Algarni, F., Quasim, M. T. (eds). Smart Cities: A Data Analytics Perspective. Lecture Notes on Intelligent Transportation and Infrastructure. Springer, Cham. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-60922-1_12.




How to Cite

Samar Ali, S., Sikandar, M. A., Ahmad, A., & Kaur, R. (2023). A Study on Determinants of the Emergence of Sustainable Smart Cities. Asian Journal of Managerial Science, 12(2), 26–34. https://doi.org/10.51983/ajms-2023.12.2.3777