Microgrids in Competitive Market Environment: An Indian Perspective


  • Jasmine Kaur Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, UIT, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
  • Rahul Prashar Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, UIT, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India




Deregulation, Electricity Market, Microgrids, Optimization, Renewable Energy Sources, Social Benefit


Microgrids are believed to be the befitting green solution to the ever-rising energy crisis in the developing nations. The resource rich nations are rapidly shifting their dependence on microgrids to meet the reduced carbon footprint target at a global level. This paper addresses this issue and presents a detailed technical review on microgrid integration in competitive electricity market scenario. An in-depth coverage of the need for and importance of microgrid deployments across India is presented in this work. The relevant literature that highlights the significance of various energy storage systems is reviewed. The authors present the perspective of microgrid integration in a competitive market scenario covering both day ahead and real time market scenarios thereby discussing the concept of maximizing social benefit in a grid integrated microgrid framework. This work also focuses on microgrid optimization techniques and outlines a detailed comparison showing merits and demerits of all the techniques implemented by the researchers so far. The authors highlight the fact that green energy holds the potential to not only outgrow the fossil fuels but it shall do so by fetching the requisite economic benefit to the investors as well.


ABPS Infrastructure Advisory Private Limited, "Development of Conceptual Framework for Renewable Energy Certificate Mechanism for India," Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (Government of India), 2009.

"Power from Renewables," Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, 2017.

"National Solar Mission," Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, 2017.

R. Singh and Y. Sood, "ABPS Infrastructure Advisory Private Limited, 'Development of Conceptual Framework for Renewable Energy Certificate Mechanism for India,' Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (Government of India), 2009.

S. K. Sahoo, "Renewable and sustainable energy reviews solar photovoltaic energy progress in India: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 59, pp. 927-939, 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.01.049.

T. Urmee, D. Harries and A. Schlapfer, "Issues related to rural electrification using renewable energy in developing countries of Asia and Pacific," Renewable Energy, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 354-357, 2009, DOI:10.1016/j.renene.2008.05.004.

Monthly Renewable Energy Generation Report [Ministry of Power, Central electricity authority].

E. Kabir, P. Kumar, S. Kumar, A. Adelodun and K. Kim, "Solar energy: Potential and future prospects," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 82, pp. 894-900, 2018, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2017.09.094.

S. Kulkarni, M. Deo and S. Ghosh, "Impact of active and break wind spells on the demand - supply balance in wind energy in India," Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 81-97, 2017, DOI: 10.1007/s00703-017-0501-5.

S. Venkataraman, C. Ziesler, P. Johnson and S. Kempen, "Integrated Wind, Solar, and Energy Storage," IEEE Power & Energy Magazine, no. 3, pp. 74-83, 2018, DOI: 10.1109/MPE.2018.2793478.

N. Sharma, P. Tiwari and Y. Sood, "A comprehensive analysis of strategies, policies and development of hydropower in India: Special emphasis on small hydro power," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 18, pp. 460-470, 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2012.10.017.

G. Mufti, A. Basit, M. Rehman, S. Hassan and R. Khan, "Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Renewable Energy Integration on the Utility Grid System," in International Conference on Computing, Mathematics and Engineering Technologies, pp. 1-5, 2018, DOI: 10.1109/ICOMET.2018.8346415.

R. H. Lasseter, "MicroGrids," 2002 IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting. Conference Proceedings (Cat. No.02CH37309), vol. 1, pp. 305-308, 2002, DOI: 10.1109/PESW.2002.985003.

R. H. Lasseter and P. Paigi, "Microgrid: a conceptual solution," 2004 IEEE 35th Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conference (IEEE Cat. No.04CH37551), vol. 6, pp. 4285-4290, 2004, DOI: 10.1109/PESC.2004.1354758.

V. S. K. Murthy Balijepalli, S. A. Khaparde and C. V. Dobariya, "Deployment of MicroGrids in India," IEEE PES General Meeting, pp. 1-7, 2010, DOI: 10.1109/PES.2010.5589956.

M. Ding, Y. Zhang and M. Mao, "Key technologies for microgrids-a review," 2009 International Conference on Sustainable Power Generation and Supply, pp. 1-5, 2009, DOI: 10.1109/SUPERGEN.2009.5348218.

R. Bhoyar and S. Bharatkar, "Potential of MicroSources, Renewable Energy sources and Application of Microgrids in Rural areas of Maharashtra State India," Energy Procedia, vol. 14, pp. 2012-2018, 2012, DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2011.12.1202.

S. Nosratabadi, R. Hooshmand and E. Gholipour, "A comprehensive review on microgrid and virtual power plant concepts employed for distributed energy resources scheduling in power systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 67, pp. 341-363, 2017, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.09.025.

P. Loka, S. Moola, K. Polsani, S. Reddy, S. Fulton and A. Skumanich, "A case study for micro‐grid PV: lessons learned from a rural electrification project in India.," in Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, pp. 733-743, 2014, DOI: 10.1002/pip.2429.

K. Rudion, A. Orths, Z. A. Styczynski and K. Strunz, "Design of benchmark of medium voltage distribution network for investigation of DG integration," 2006 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, pp. 1-6, 2006, DOI: 10.1109/PES.2006.1709447.

T. Ustun, C. Ozansoy and A. Zayegh, "Recent developments in microgrids and example cases around the world - A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 4030-4041, 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.033.

N. Lidula and A. Rajapakse, "Microgrids research: A review of experimental microgrids and test systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 186-202, 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2010.09.041.

J. Jithendranath and Debapriya Das, "Multi-Objective Optimal Power Flow in Islanded Microgrids with Solar PV Generation by NLTV-MOPSO," IETE Journal of Research, pp. 1-14, 2021, DOI: 10.1080/03772063.2021.1886609.

V. A. Suryad, S. Doolla and M. Chandorkar, "Microgrids in India: Possibilities and Challenges," in IEEE Electrification Magazine, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 47-55, June 2017, DOI: 10.1109/MELE.2017.2685880.

Lim, Yujin, Jaesung Park, Hak-Man Kim, and Tetsuo Kinoshita, "A Bargaining approach to optimizing load shedding in islanded microgrid operation," IETE Technical Review, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 483-489, 2013, DOI: 10.4103/0256-4602.125669.

J. Kaur Saini, Y. Raj Sood, and R. Shrivastava, "Optimal resource management of microgrids in a competitive market environment using dual layer control approach," Electr. Power Compon. Syst., vol. 47, no. 14-15, pp. 1274-1286, 2019, DOI: 10.1080/15325008.2019.1666438.

J. Kaur, Y. R. Sood, and R. Shrivastava, "Optimal resource utilization in a multi-microgrid network for Tamil Nadu state in India," IETE J. Res., pp. 1-11, 2019, DOI: 10.1080/03772063.2019.1595182.

J. Kaur, Y. R. Sood, and R. Shrivastava, "A two-layer optimization approach for renewable energy management of green microgrid in deregulated power sector," J. Renew. Sustain. Energy, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 065905, 2017, DOI: 10.1063/1.4986342.

P. A. Jaboulay, W. Zhu, X. Niu, X. Pan and S. Gao, "Real-Time Energy Management Optimization Using Model Predictive Control on a Microgrid Demonstrator," 2017 IEEE International Conference on Energy Internet (ICEI), pp. 226-231, 2017, DOI: 10.1109/ICEI.2017.47.

F. S. Tidjani, A. Hamadi, A. Chandra, P. Pillay and A. Ndtoungou, "Optimization of Standalone Microgrid Considering Active Damping Technique and Smart Power Management Using Fuzzy Logic Supervisor," in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 475-484, Jan. 2017, DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2016.2610971.

Y. Sun, X. Tang, X. Sun, D. Jia, and G. Zhang, "Microgrid tie‐line power fluctuation mitigation with virtual energy storage," J. Eng. (Stevenage), vol. 2019, no. 16, pp. 1001-1004, 2019, DOI: 10.1049/joe.2018.8553.

A. Dehamna and P. Asmus, "Energy Storage for Microgrids," Navigant Research, 2014.

M. Jarnut, S. Wermiński and B. Waśkowicz, "Comparative analysis of selected energy storage technologies for prosumer-owned microgrids," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 74, pp. 925-937, 2017, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2017.02.084.

V. Verma and K. Murugesan, "Experimental study of solar energy storage and space heating using solar assisted ground source heat pump system for Indian climatic conditions," Energy and Buildings, vol. 139, pp. 569-577, 2017, DOI: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.01.041.

H. Chen, T. Cong, W. Yang, C. Tan, Y. Li and Y. Ding, "Progress in electrical energy storage system: A critical review," Progress in Natural Science, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 291-312, 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.pnsc.2008.07.014.

Brahmendra Kumar, G.V. and Palanisamy, K., "Review of Energy Storage System for Microgrid," Microgrid Technologies, pp. 57-90, 2021, DOI: 10.1002/9781119710905.ch3.

H. Ibrahim, A. Ilinca and J. Perron, "Energy storage systems - Characteristics and comparisons," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1221-1250, 2008, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2007.01.023.

J. Fossati, A. Galarza, A. Martín-Villate and L. Fontán, "A method for optimal sizing energy storage systems for microgrids," Renewable Energy, vol. 77, pp. 539-549, 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2014.12.039.

G. Koeppel and M. Korpas, "Using storage devices for compensating uncertainties caused by non-dispatchable generators," in 2006 International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems, pp. 1-8, 2006, DOI: 10.1109/PMAPS.2006.360269.

A. Stoppato, G. Cavazzini, G. Ardizzon and A. Rossetti, "A PSO (particle swarm optimization)-based model for the optimal management of a small PV(Photovoltaic)-pump hydro energy storage in a rural dry area," Energy, vol. 76, pp. 168-174, 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2014.06.004.

T. Ma, H. Yang, L. Lu and J. Peng, "Pumped storage-based standalone photovoltaic power generation system: Modeling and techno-economic optimization," Applied Energy, vol. 137, pp. 649-659, 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.06.005.

N. Sivakumar, D. Das and N. Padhy, "Variable speed operation of reversible pump-turbines at Kadamparai pumped storage plant - A case study," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 78, pp. 96-104, 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2013.10.048.

T. Sels, C. Dragu, T. Craenenbroeck and R. Belmans, "Electrical energy storage systems: existing systems versus newest systems - An overview," in International Conference Power Generation and Sustainable Development, Liège, Belgium, pp. 8-9, 2001, DOI: 10.1016/B978-044452745-5.00090-3.

E. Barbour, I. Wilson, J. Radcliffe, Y. Ding and Y. Li, "A review of pumped hydro energy storage development in significant international electricity markets," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 61, pp. 421-432, 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.04.019.

S. Rehman, L. Al-Hadhrami and M. Alam, "Pumped hydro energy storage system: A technological review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 44, pp. 586-598, 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.12.040.

B. Pali and S. Vadhera, "A novel pumped hydro-energy storage scheme with wind energy for power generation at constant voltage in rural areas," Renewable Energy, vol. 127, pp. 802-810, 2018, DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2018.05.028.

J. Kaur, Y.R Sood and R. Shrivastava, "Optimal resource utilization in a multi-microgrid network for Tamil Nadu state in India," IETE Journal of Research, pp. 1-11, 2019, DOI: 10.1080/03772063.2019.1595182.

J. K. Saini, Y.R Sood and R. Shrivastava, "Optimal Resource Management of Microgrids in a Competitive Market Environment Using Dual Layer Control Approach," Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 47, no. 14-15, pp.1274-1286, 2019, DOI: 10.1080/15325008.2019.1666438.

J. Kaur, Y.R Sood and R. Shrivastava, "A two-layer optimization approach for renewable energy management of green microgrid in deregulated power sector," Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 065905, 2017, DOI: 10.1080/15325008.2019.1666438.

J. Kaur, Y.R Sood and R. Shrivastava, "Optimal Operation of Self Sustainable Green Microgrid in Deregulated Power Sector," Journal of Energy, Environment and Carbon Credits, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1-7, 2016.

O.P. Yadav, J. Kaur, N.K. Sharma, and Y.R Sood, "Renewable Energy Management in Multi-microgrid Under Deregulated Environment of Power Sector," In Applications of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Engineering, Springer, Singapore, pp. 289-302, 2019, DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-1819-1_28.

J. Kaur, R. Prashar, N.K. Sharma and A. Banshwar, "A Review on Policies and Challenges Faced in Solar PhotoVoltaic Technology: Indian Perspective," In Computing, Networks and Renewable Energy (CNRE-2021), Kapurthala, August, 2021.

M. Ventosa, Á. Baı́llo, A. Ramos and M. Rivier, "Electricity market modeling trends," Energy Policy, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 897-913, 2005, DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2003.10.013.

J. Kaur, A. Banshwar, N. K. Sharma, Y. Raj Sood and R. Shrivastava, "Strategic Utilization of Resources in a Microgrid in an Uncertain Electricity Market," in 2018 International Conference on Power Energy, Environment and Intelligent Control (PEEIC), pp. 220-225, 2018, DOI: 10.1109/PEEIC.2018.8665654.

G. G. Hamoud and L. Bradley, "Assessment of transmission congestion cost and locational marginal pricing in a competitive electricity market," in 2001 Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting. Conference Proceedings (Cat. No.01CH37262), vol. 3, pp. 1468-1472, 2001, DOI: 10.1109/PESS.2001.970292.

L. L. Lai, Ed., Power system restructuring and deregulation: Trading, performance and information technology, 1st ed. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, 2003.

T. Niimura, "Forecasting techniques for deregulated electricity market prices-extended survey," In IEEE PES Power Systems Conference and Exposition, pp. 51-56, 2006.

N. Padhy and Y. Sood, "Advancement in Power System Engineering Education And Research With Power Industry Moving Towards Deregulation," in IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, pp. 71-76, 2004.

A. Verbruggen, "A normative structure for the European electricity market," Energy Policy, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 281-292, 1997, DOI: doi.org/10.1016/S0301-4215(96)00138-3.

P. Bajpai and S. Singh, "Electricity Trading in Competitive Power Market: An Overview And Key Issues," in International Conference on Power Systems, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2004.

U. Shukla and A. Thampy, “Analysis of competition and market power in the wholesale electricity market in India,” Energy Policy, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 2699-2710, 2011, DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2011.02.039.

G. Liu, Y. Xu, and K. Tomsovic, “Bidding Strategy for Microgrid in Day-Ahead Market Based on Hybrid Stochastic/Robust Optimization,” in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 227-237, Jan. 2016, DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2015.2476669.

V. Madhu, B. Subramanyam, and M. Surya, “Optimal Bidding strategy in South Region Day-ahead Market Model using New Aggregated Demand Model and Hybrid Technique,” International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 131, no. 7, pp. 24-33, 2015, DOI: 10.5120/ijca2015907383.

N. Sunar and J. Birge, “Strategic Commitment to a Production Schedule with Uncertain Supply and Demand: Renewable Energy in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets,” SSRN Electronic Journal, 2014, DOI: 10.1287/mnsc.2017.2961.

A. Conejo, J. Contreras, R. Espínola, and M. Plazas, “Forecasting electricity prices for a day-ahead pool-based electric energy market,” International Journal of Forecasting, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 435-462, 2005, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijforecast.2004.12.005.

A. J. Conejo, J. M. Morales, and L. Baringo, “Real-Time Demand Response Model,” in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 236-242, Dec. 2010, DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2010.2078843.

H. Yang et al., “Distributionally Robust Optimal Bidding of Controllable Load Aggregators in the Electricity Market,” in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 1089-1091, Jan. 2018, DOI: 10.1109/TPWRS.2017.2701650.

H. Shin, D. Lee, and R. Baldick, “An Offer Strategy for Wind Power Producers That Considers the Correlation Between Wind Power and Real-Time Electricity Prices,” in IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 695-706, April 2018, DOI: 10.1109/TSTE.2017.2757501.

Y. Ji, T. Zheng, and L. Tong, “Stochastic Interchange Scheduling in the Real-Time Electricity Market,” in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 2017-2027, May 2017, DOI: 10.1109/TPWRS.2016.2600635.

N. Nezamoddini and Y. Wang, “Real-time electricity pricing for industrial customers: Survey and case studies in the United States,” Applied Energy, vol. 195, pp. 1023-1037, 2017, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.03.102.

T. Niimura and T. Nakashima, “Deregulated electricity market data representation by fuzzy regression models,” IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part C (Applications and Reviews), vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 320-326, 2001, DOI: 10.1109/5326.971659.

S. Sharma and Y. R. Sood, “Microgrids: A review of status, technologies, software tools, and issues in Indian power market,” IETE Tech. Rev., pp. 1-22, 2020, DOI: 10.1080/02564602.2020.1850367.

P. R. Thimmapuram and J. Kim, “Consumers’ Price Elasticity of Demand Modeling With Economic Effects on Electricity Markets Using an Agent-Based Model,” in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 390-397, March 2013, DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2012.2234487.

D. Roh and H. Yang, “Design of An Iterative Multi-Item Double-Auction Mechanism,” Computational Intelligence, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 62-75, 2008, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8640.2007.00319.x.

Y. Xu and Z. Li, “Distributed Optimal Resource Management Based on the Consensus Algorithm in a Microgrid,” in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 2584-2592, April 2015, DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2014.2356171.

J. Lee, J. Guo, J. K. Choi, and M. Zukerman, “Distributed Energy Trading in Microgrids: A Game-Theoretic Model and Its Equilibrium Analysis,” in IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 3524-3533, June 2015, DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2014.2387340.

Z. Fu, X. He, T. Huang, and H. Abu-Rub, “A distributed continuous time consensus algorithm for maximize social welfare in microgrid,” Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 353, no. 15, pp. 3966-3984, 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.jfranklin.2016.07.009.

M. N. Faqiry and S. Das, “Double-Sided Energy Auction in Microgrid: Equilibrium Under Price Anticipation,” in IEEE Access, vol. 4, pp. 3794-3805, 2016, DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2591912.

S. Behboodi, D. Chassin, C. Crawford, and N. Djilali, “Renewable resources portfolio optimization in the presence of demand response,” Applied Energy, vol. 162, pp. 139-148, 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.074.

C. L. Chang and J. C. H. Peng, “A Decision-Making Auction Algorithm for Demand Response in Microgrids,” in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 3553-3562, July 2018, DOI: 10.1109/TSG.2016.2634583.

S. Park, J. Lee, G. Hwang, and J. K. Choi, “Event-Driven Energy Trading System in Microgrids: Aperiodic Market Model Analysis With a Game Theoretic Approach,” in IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 26291-26302, 2017, DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2766233.

D. Vergados, I. Mamounakis, P. Makris, and E. Varvarigos, “Prosumer clustering into virtual microgrids for cost reduction in renewable energy trading markets,” Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks, vol. 7, pp. 90-103, 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.segan.2016.06.002.

D. An, Q. Yang, W. Yu, X. Yang, X. Fu, and W. Zhao, “Sto2Auc: A Stochastic Optimal Bidding Strategy for Microgrids,” in IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 2260-2274, Dec. 2017, DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2017.2764879.

A. Parisio, E. Rikos, and L. Glielmo, “A Model Predictive Control Approach to Microgrid Operation Optimization,” in IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1813-1827, Sept. 2014, DOI: 10.1109/TCST.2013.2295737.

M. Ding, Y. Y. Zhang, M. Q. Mao, W. Yang, and X. P. Liu, “Operation optimization for microgrids under centralized control,” The 2nd International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems, pp. 984-987, 2010, DOI: 10.1109/PEDG.2010.5545793.

J. Chen et al., “Optimal Sizing for Grid-Tied Microgrids With Consideration of Joint Optimization of Planning and Operation,” in IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 237-248, Jan. 2018, DOI: 10.1109/TSTE.2017.2724583.

A. Askarzadeh, “A Memory-Based Genetic Algorithm for Optimization of Power Generation in a Microgrid,” in IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1081-1089, July 2018, DOI: 10.1109/TSTE.2017.2765483.

M. Nemati, M. Braun, and S. Tenbohlen, “Optimization of unit commitment and economic dispatch in microgrids based on genetic algorithm and mixed integer linear programming,” Applied Energy, vol. 210, pp. 944-963, 2018, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.07.007.

A. Parisio, E. Rikos, G. Tzamalis, and L. Glielmo, “Use of model predictive control for experimental microgrid optimization,” Applied Energy, vol. 115, pp. 37-46, 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013. 10.027.

F. Wang, J. L. Duarte, and M. A. M. Hendrix, “Grid-Interfacing Converter Systems With Enhanced Voltage Quality for Microgrid Application - Concept and Implementation,” in IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 3501-3513, Dec. 2011, DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2011.2147334.

J. He, Y. W. Li, and F. Blaabjerg, “An accurate autonomous islanding microgrid reactive power, imbalance power and harmonic power sharing scheme,” 2013 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, 2013, pp. 1337-1343, DOI: 10.1109/ECCE.2013.6646860.

A. M. Sharaf and A. A. El-Gammal, “A novel efficient PSO-self regulating PID controller for hybrid PV-FC-diesel-battery micro grid scheme for village/resort electricity utilization,” 2010 IEEE Electrical Power & Energy Conference, 2010, pp. 1-6, DOI: 10.1109/EPEC.2010.5697245.

S. Ghaem Sigarchian, M. S. Orosz, H. F. Hemond, and A. Malmquist, “Optimum design of a hybrid PV–CSP–LPG microgrid with Particle Swarm Optimization technique,” Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 109, pp. 1031-1036, 2016, DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.05.119.

K. T. Tan, P. L. So, Y. C. Chu, and M. Z. Q. Chen, “A Flexible AC Distribution System Device for a Microgrid,” in IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 601-610, Sept. 2013, DOI: 10.1109/TEC.2013.2260162.

M. S. Golsorkhi and D. D. Lu, “A Decentralized Control Method for Islanded Microgrids Under Unbalanced Conditions,” in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 1112-1121, June 2016, DOI: 10.1109/TPWRD.2015.2453251.




How to Cite

Kaur, J., & Prashar, R. (2023). Microgrids in Competitive Market Environment: An Indian Perspective. Asian Journal of Electrical Sciences, 12(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.51983/ajes-2023.12.1.3572